Robert Melrose 1860 - BCA f-07393

The Diary of Robert Melrose

W.K. Lamb

BC Historical Quarterly April – July 1943

THE DIARY OF ROBERT MELROSE.

The only remarkable thing about Robert Melrose seems to have been his diary.
He was born in Scotland, probably in 1828. In 1852, at the age of 24, he was engaged as
a labourer by the Puget Sound Agricultural Company, a subsidiary of the Hudson’s Bay
Company, which was about to establish several large farms in the vicinity of Fort Victoria.
He and his wife made the voyage from London to Vancouver Island in the barque Norman
Morison, in company with more than fifty fellow-workmen, many of whom had wives and
families. The vessel arrived in January 1853, and Melrose was assigned to the Craigflower
Farm, near the head of Victoria Arm. The rest of his life was spent on the farm or in the
vicinity of Craigflower. He died in the Jubilee Hospital, Victoria, after a long illness,
on July 28, 1898, in his seventy-first year. A daughter, Ellen, later Mrs. Douglas, was born at Craigflower, on May 19, 1854. She died as recently as May 26, 1936, a few days after her eighty-second birthday.

The diary indicates that Melrose was a man of some education, and certain entries suggest that drink may well have been the reason for his failure to get on in the world. The original manuscript is elaborately lettered and decorated, in clever imitation of the printed almanacs which were fashionable at the time. The usual astronomical data and calculations, tables, ecclesiastical and historical anniversaries, poems, etc., are all included. These have been omitted in printing, and only the contemporary entries relating to local events have been retained.

At first sight the contents of the diary may seem trivial, but a careful reading will show that it throws much light upon the history of Vancouver Island in the fifties. To begin with, it is one of the very few chronologies known to us, and it is the only one that covers the years 1853—57 in detail. In the second place, it contains a great deal of information about shipping movements. The harbour life of Victoria and Esquimalt was far more active in early days than is generally realized. The supply ships and coastal trading vessels of the Hudson’s Bay Company were constantly on the move; ships of the Royal Navy came and went; the demand for lumber and piles in San Francisco kept a small fleet employed, sailing from Sooke and Victoria; little trading schooners flitted about, hawking wares and their services, and venturing as far afield as Honolulu. Finally came the start of regular coastal services, notably the mail route between Olympia and Victoria. All these developments can be traced in the Melrose diary, if one takes the trouble to tabulate the entries.

Then again, the diary throws light upon the living and working conditions of the time. The discontent, punishments, and desertions that characterized life at Craigflower are nowhere so clearly and starkly recorded as in Melrose’s brief notes. Similarly, it gives us a record of the banquets, horse-races, 24th of May celebrations, and lectures on philosophical, religious, and scientific subjects that helped to make up the pleasanter side of life.

The preoccupation of the writer with food and drink is another point of significance. We know from his correspondence that Governor Douglas was frequently worried about the food supply on Vancouver Island. More than once a vessel had to be sent off in haste to Nisqually to bring cattle and supplies from the farms and storehouses there to relieve a local shortage. This state of affairs continued for several years, until the acreage under cultivation became sufficiently great to assure an ample supply of grain and other necessities.

The numerous references in the diary to drunkenness are amusing in their way, owing to Melrose’s habit of noting whether the persons concerned were one-quarter, half, three-quarters, or wholly drunk; but the liquor traffic was anything but amusing to Douglas. By the spring of 1853 it was clear that restrictions of some kind were essential. On March 29, Douglas asked the Legislative Council to license liquor vendors, as he believed that this would be “the best means of restraining the abuse and excessive importation of spirituous liquors into this Colony.” The Council agreed and licence fees of £100 (wholesale) and £125 (retail) were imposed. Douglas reported to London that this measure had been “fiercely opposed by the whole body of publicans and other blood-suckers, who are preying upon the vitals of the Colony, exhausting its wealth and making a return of poisonous drinks, ruinous to the morals of the people, and the prolific source of poverty and crime.”[1] Six months later he was able to state that there was “now only one licensed ale house at this place and that conducted in a very orderly manner. The consumption of spirits is greatly reduced, and the scandalous scenes of drunkeness [sic] and excess which were the disgrace of Victoria, before the passage of the License act, are now never seen.”[2]  But if the supply had decreased, the demand had not. Less than two months later Melrose stated, in a special footnote in his diary, that “it would almost take a line of packet ships, running regular between here, and San Francisco to supply this Island with grog, so great a thirst prevails amongst its inhabitants.”

Experience in the Provincial Archives, where the original manuscript is a prized exhibit, has shown that almost every one seeking information about life on Vancouver Island in the fifties finds something of interest and significance in the Melrose diary. For that reason, it seems worth printing in the Quarterly. No attempt has been made to identify every person, place, event, or vessel mentioned in the text, but the more important amongst them have been dealt with briefly in the footnotes. W.K.L.

DIARY OF ROBERT MELR0SE.

ROYAL EMIGRANT’S ALMANACK

concerning

FIVE YEARS SERVITUDE

under the

HUDSON’S BAY COMPANY

On

VANCOUVER’S ISLAND

Printed & Published by R. Melrose.

Front Street, Maple Point, Vancouver Id.

PREFACE.

 The design and nature of this Almanack, is to take an accurate account of all the proceedings, and remarkable events, which may occur during our five years service under the Hudson’s Bay Company on Vancouver’s Island; as it was my intention to take up the detail from January 1853, that being the month of our arrival here; but I feel myself obliged to commence the description from the month of August 1852; the time we embarked, and sailed away from our native soil, where I shall be able to insert all the principal occurrences which happened during our voyage from Great Britain, to Vancouver’s Island. It is my intention further to pursue the course upon which I have undertaken, carefully noting down every transaction, either in regard to marriages, births, or deaths, agricultural improvements, house building, and all the shipping, either at Fort Victoria, or Esquimalt harbour, as far as I am able to know of their arrival, or departure.

1852

 AUGUST

 We. 11 Shipped on board the “Steam Boat Trident,” at Granton Pier[3], sailed 6 o’clock evening.

Th. 12 Rough sea, All the passengers mostly sick.

Fr. 13 Arrived at London, evening. Sleeped all night on board.

Sa. 14 Shipped, on board “Norman Morrison,”[4] East India Docks, London.

  1. 15 Tugged down the Thames, to anchorage, at Gravesend.

Tu. 17 Weighed anchor and sailed down to anchorage at the Lower Hope.

We. 18 Mrs. Anderson[5] gave birth to a female child.

Fr. 20 Sailed out of the Thames.

  1. 22 Pilot left us at the Isle of Wight.

Mo. 23 Passed the Lizzard Point.

We. 25 Entered the Bay of Biscay.

Mo. 30 Passed the Bay of Biscay.

SEPTEMBER

Mo. 6 No brezzes at all, heavy swelling sea’s.

We. 22 Thunder storm with high winds, Top-sails close reefed.

Th. 30 Crossed the Line 22°56’ West Longitude.

OCTOBER

Mo. 4 Jonathon Simpson’s child died, & buried. Funeral service performed.

  1. 10 Very squally with showers.

Mo. 18 High winds and rain.

We. 20 Strong brezze, opposite the La Plata [River].

Th. 21 James Whyte’s girl died.

Fr. 22 do. do. d. buried. 37°25’ South Latitude, 49° West Longitude.

Mo. 25 Strong gales.

Fr. 29 Thunder, lightning, and rain.

Sa. 30 Great numbers of Whales seen during the last two or three days.

  1. 31 Went close by the Falkland Islands, charming breeze.

NOVEMBER

Mo. 1 Heavy rolling sea.

Th. 4 Scarcely ever dark at night, 64o S. Lat. Off Cape Horn.

  1. 7 Hurricane with drift and snow, saw an iceberg evening.

Mo. 8 Showers of snow.

Th. 11 Hurricane lasted from the 7th with a sea rolling mountains high.

Fr. 12  1 Albattross catched measurement, 10 feet 2 in. from tip to tip, 3’/2 feet from bill to tail. Spoke a ship bound for Callao.

Sa. 13 1 Buffoon,[6] 3 snow Pigeons catched.

Mo. 15 High winds and heavy sea, lasted from Sabbath morning.

We. 17 7 Albatross’s catched, 42°30’ S. Lat. 79°20’ W. Long.[7]

Fr. 19 Great numbers of Cape Pigeons catched during the last month.

  1. 21 High winds with rain.

Sa. 27 Crossed the Tropic of Capricorn.

DECEMBER

  1. 5 Mrs. Anderson’s child baptized, after Captain Wishart, & ship Norman Morison.[8] 12° S. Lat.

Mo. 6 11°37’ South Latitude, 91°30’ West Longitude.

Fr. 10 Mrs. Cheeseman gave birth to a female child, 3°35’ S. Lat. 104° W. Long.

  1. 12 Crossed the Line, 108° West Longitude.

Tu. 14 One Porpoise catched, 6 feet, 6 inches long.

We. 15 One Bonito, and one Albacore, catched.

We. 22 16°58’ North Latitude, 119° West Longitude.

Sa. 25 Christmas kept, Grog for all hands, Riot with Mate & Seamen, 20°53’ N. Lat. 124°30’ W. Long.

  1. 26 John Grout an Englishman died, aged 35.

Mo. 27 do. do. Buried 12. o’clock noon. Funeral service per formed. 22°43’ N. Lat. 126° W. Long.

Tu. 28 do. do.’s Clothing &c. sold by public auction on board. Crossed the Tropic of Cancer.

Fr. 31 Grog for all hands. 29°3’ North. Latitude 131° West Longitude.

1853

JANUARY

Sa. 1 Grog for all hands.

Mo. 3 Strong breeze, sailing under Close reefed Top-sails.

Tu. 4 Main Royal blown out of the Ropes, morning. Top-sails reefed.

We. 5 Heavy rain. Fr. 7 Hurricane of wind. Sailing under Close reefed Top-sails.

  1. 9 Very Rainy, Brisk gale, Sailing under Close reefed Top-sails.

Mo. 10 Espied Cape Flattery, and Vancouvers Island, Nearly struck against the rocks evening.

Tu. 11 Dodging about the mouth of the Sound, with Close reefed Topsails Nearly struck morning.

We. 12 Wet day, Driven out to sea, Sighted Vancouvers Island, evening.

Th. 13 Strong gale, Driven out to sea again with Close reefed Top sails.

Fr. 14 Came to the mouth of the Sound Evening, All hands on Deck, to guard against the rocks.

Sa. 15 Fine day, Sailed up the Sound very slow.

  1. 16 Cast Anchor in the Royal Bay [i.e., in Royal Roads], Saw the Indians in their canoe’s first time.

Mo. 17 English People went ashore, with Mr. McKenzie, Weir, & Stewart, at Fort Victoria.[9]

Tu. 18 Scotch do. also do.

Fr. 21 Norman Morrison came into Harbour.

Sa. 22 Went up and saw our new abode.[10]

Mo. 24 Carpenters, & Blacksmiths, all removed up to the farm. Ship wreck lost our Stern going home.[11]

 Sa. 29 Wet Day.

  1. 30 Attended the English Chapel in the Fort.[12]

FEBRUARY

We. 2 James Downie & James Whyte removed to the farm. Ship wreck in the Rapids going home.”[13]

Th. 3 Hard frost.

Tu. 8 George Greenwood & Isabella Russel married.

We. 9 Holiday kept here.

Sa. 12 Holiday given all the men practising ball shooting.

Tu. 15 The “Brig Vancouver “[14] sailed for the Sandwich Islands.

Sa. 19 Mrs. Stewart gave birth to a male child.

Tu. 22 Brig “Mary Dare“[15] arrived from Nisqually with fresh Beef and Cows.

MARCH

Tu. 1 Mr. McKenzie’s Steam Engine taken up to the Farm.

Fr. 4 Temporay [sic] Smith’s-shop erected.

Tn. 8 “Norman Morrison” ran aground at the entrance of the Harbour. Steam Boat Beaver sailed for Coal-Mines.[16]

Th. 10 The Brig “Williams” visited Port.[17]

  1. 13 Thomas Abernethy & Christeena Bell proclaimed for marriage.

Tu. 15 Steam Boat “Beaver” arrived from Coal-Mines.

We. 16 Barque “Norman Morrison” sailed out of Harbour.

Th. 17 Mr. McKenzie’s Store House finished.

  1. 20 Barque “Norman Morrison” sailed for England.

Mo. 21 Scough-load of Provisions taken up to the farm.

Tu. 22 Wet day.

We. 23 Brig “Recovery “[18] sailed as a gaurd-ship [sic] to the CoalMines[19], Steam Boat “Beaver” tugged her up.

Fr. 25 Holiday given.

Sa. 26 James Douglas Esqre. proclaimed Governor of Queen Charlotte’s Island.[20]

  1. 27 John Crittle & Herriot Whyte proclaimed for marriage. Likewise William Guthrie & Helen Fisher.

Tu. 29 Scough-load of provisions taken up to the farm.

We. 30 Rain & Snow.

Th. 31 One Dwelling House finished.[21]

 APRIL

Fr. 1 Mr. McKenzie, Wife & Family removed to the Farm.

Mo. 4 Brig “Mary Dare” arrived with fresh meat and Potatoes.

Tu. 5 Schooner “Mary Taylor “[22] arrived in Port.

Th. 7 Mr. McKenzie’s Steam Engine set agoing.

Fr. 8 Thomas Abernethy and Christeena Bell married.

Sa. 9 Saw Mill started.

  1. 10 Brig “Mary Dare” sailed for San Francisco.

Mo. 11 Schooner “Mary Taylor” sailed out of Port.

Th. 14 William Guthrie and Helen Fisher married.

Fr. 15 John Crittle and Herriot Whyte, married.

  1. 17 Schooner “Honolullu” arrived in Port.[23]

Mo. 18 H.M. Steam Frigate “Virago,” 6 Guns, arrived in Esquimalt Harbour.

Tu. 19 John Bell stricken work.[24]

We. 20 “Mary Taylor” arrived in Harbour.

Th. 21 Carpenters stricken work. Wet morning.

Fr. 22 Schooner “Mary Taylor” sailed.

  1. 24 Steam Boat “Beaver,” and Brig “Cadboro,”[25] arrived from Coal Mines.

Mo. 25 Schooner “Honolullu” sailed out of Port.

We. 27 H.M.’s Steam Frigate “Virago,” sailed for the Coal Mines [Nanaimo], & Queen Charlotte’s Island. Th. 28 John Bell imprisoned for thirty days. Wet day.

Sa. 30 Brig “Vancouver” arrived from Sandwich Islands.

MAY

Tu. 3 Steam Boat “Beaver” sailed on a trading expedition.

Th. 5 Garden seeds sown.

  1. 8 Mrs. Deans gave birth to a female child.

Tu. 10 Commenced to plough a piece of ground for potatoes.

Th. 12 One bullock killed.

Sa. 14 One dwelling house finished. One dwelling house finished. [sic]

Mo. 16 William Veitch, James Liddle, James Wilson, & the Author, all removed to the farm.

Tu. 17 All the potatoes planted in the Garden. Brig “Vancouver” sailed for Fraser’s River.

Th. 19 Horses & Cows brought up to the farm. John Russel removed to the Fort.

Sa. 21 Mrs. Barr gave birth to a female child.

Tu. 24 Victoria races celebrated on Beacon Hill. Holiday given.

We. 25 James Wilson, and the Author got a clock each.

Th. 26 Brig “Rose” taking in a cargo of timber in Harbour[26].

Fr. 27 John Bell liberated. James Downie stricken work.

Sa. 28 One Bullock killed and divided.

  1. 29 James Stewart, and George Deans’s children baptized, English Chapel.

Mo. 30 H.M.’s Steam Frigate “Virago” arrived from Queen Charlotte’s Island.

Tu. 31 Field potatoes all planted.

JUNE

We. 1 James Downie started to work. Dinner given by the Governor to the Officers of the Frigate on Beacon Hill.

Th. 2 Well sunk 27 feet deep plentifull supply. Brig “Mary Dare” arrived from San Francisco.

Fr. 3 William McNeill, and Mary MacCauly married. One Sow pigged.

Sa. 4 Two Deers divided among the people.

  1. 5 Attended Prayers on board the Steam Frigate “Virago.”

Mo. 6 One dwelling house finished. One Sow pigged.

Tu. 7 James Tait removed to the farm. John Bell started to work.

We. 8 Discovered Lime-stone. Steam Frigate “Virago” sailed for Port Simpson.

Th. 9 Four Cows brought up to the farm. Slight showers.

Fr. 10 Brig “Vancouver” arrived from Fraser’s River.

Sa. 11 Edward Shooter drowned by the upsetting of a Canoe.

Tu. 14 7 Cows brought up to the farm.

We. 15 Commenced to make Bricks.

Th. 16 W. Veitch, J. Wilson, A. Hume, J. Liddle, J. Tait, & the Author got a Cow each.

Fr. 17 James Downie got a Cow.

Sa. 18 One Bullock killed and divided. Brig “Vancouver” sailed for San Francisco.

  1. 19 Edward Shooter’s body found by an Indian.

Mo. 20 John Bell made his escape to America. Showers.

Tu. 21 Edward Shooter buried. Brig “Rose” sailed for San Fran cisco.

We. 22 Shed put over the Saw Mill.

Th. 23 Brig “Cadboro” sailed along with the Governor.

Fr. 24 John Russel, and Peter Bartleman stricken work.

Sa. 25 H.M.’s Frigate “Trincomalee” of 26 guns arrived in Esquimalt Harbour.

Mo. 27 William & John Weir absconded to Soack [Sooke]. John Russel & Peter Bartleman tried.

Tu. 28 John Russel started to work.

We. 29 8 Indians started to work. Peter Bartleman started to work.

Th. 30 One dwelling house finished. Brig “Cadboro” arrived along with the Governor.

JULY

Fr. 1 James Stewart removed to the farm. Wilson & the Author got a gun each.

Sa. 2 Four Lambs killed and divided.

  1. 3 One of Neptune’s sons, belonging to the “Trincomalee,” got himself hurt by falling from a tree, after drinking a bottle of Grog on the top of it.

Mo. 4 First Lime Kiln burnt off. 3 more Indians started to work.

Tu. 5 Crane broke. 2 more Indians started to work.

We. 6 Crane mended. One Bull gotten for the Cows.

Th. 7 Licences for selling grog granted 120£ per Annum.[27]

Sa. 9 One Sheep killed.

Mo. 11 3 more Indians started to work. One little pig got its leg broke.

Tu. 12 6 Marines belonging to the Frigate “Trincomalee” started to work here.

We. 13 The Marines dropped work.

Th. 14 Attempt made to make [take?] Robert Weir a farmer at Fort Victoria.[28]

Sa. 16 Schooner “Honolullu” arrived from San Francisco.

  1. 17 Visited the Frigate “Trincomalee.” Fine dinner on board of her.

Mo. 18 Mrs. Veitch gave birth to a female child. One bullock killed and divided. 2nd Lime kiln burnt off.

We. 20 R. Anderson got a cow. Dinner given by the Governor to the Officers of the Frigate “Trincomalee.”

Th. 21 Brig “Vancouver” arrived from San Francisco with flour.

 Fr. 22 Fresh Salmon served out. Schooner “Honolullu” sailed out of Port.

Mo. 25 6 Marines, & 6 Seamen belonging to the Frigate “Trincomalee” started to work here.

Tu. 26 Flour brought up. Smiths shop erected. “Trincomalee” men threw a bridge here.

We. 27 James Downie’s Cow shot by an Indian. “Trincomalee” men dropped work.

Th. 28 Skirmishing party sent after the Indian that shot the cow, but could not find him.

Fr. 29 Thomas Abernethy, and Christeena Bell escaped to America.

Sa. 30 Lime kiln burnt off.

  1. 31 Prayer meeting started here by two Officers belonging to the “Trincomalee” Frigate.

AUGUST

Mo. 1 H.M. Steam Frigate “Virago” arrived from Port Simpson. Brig “Vancouver” sailed for P. Simpson.

 Tn. 2 Brig “Cadboro” sailed.

We. 3 All the Indians dropped work.

Th. 4 Years pay due, Accounts made up.

Fr. 5 Screw Steamer “Otter” arrived from England.[29]

Sa. 6 One sheep killed. One sow pigged. Oatmeal and Rice sttoped.

  1. 7 Mrs. Montgomery gave birth to a female child. Brig “Cadboro” arrived.

Mo. 8 Robert Anderson stricken work. Refreshing showers.

Tu. 9 George Deans stricken work. More Indians started to work.

We. 10 One calf died of hunger. H.M. Steam Frigate “Virago” sailed for San Francisco & the South. H.M. Frigate “Trincomalee” sailed for Queen Charlotte’s Island and Sitka. Robert Anderson, and George Deans, commenced to work to Captain Cowper.

Sa. 13 One Bullock killed and divided.

Mo. 15 One Indian died, that was working with Mr. McKenzie here.

Tu. 16 James Whyte got a room for himself. Robert Weir removed to Soack.

We. 17 Showers.

Th. 18 Screw Steamer “Otter,” and Brig “Mary Dare” sailed for the Coal-Mines [Nanaimo][30] 

Fr. 19 Heavy Rain.

Sa. 20 One sheep killed.

  1. 21 9 of the Companys men escaped to America, from Fort Victoria.

Mo. 22 Brig “Cadboro” sailed.

Tu. 23 Brick kiln burnt off. All the Indians dropped work.

We. 24 Joseph Montgomery dropped work. No Pork served out.

Th. 25 Commenced to plaster the houses with Lime.

Sa. 27 Four Lambs killed and divided.

  1. 28 American Steam Frigate “Active “[31] arrived in Port.

Tu. 30 Screw Steamer “Otter” and Brig “Mary Dare” arrived from Coal Mines [Nanaimo].

We. 31 American Steam Frigate “Active” sailed out of Port.

SEPTEMBER

Th. 1 Joseph Montgomery commenced to sink wells for his own hand.

Sa. 3 Andrew Hume 3/4 Drunk, James Whyte, & James Liddle 1/2 Drunk. Brig “Cadboro” sailed as a guardship to the Coal Mines, Screw Steamer “Otter” tugged her up.

Mo. 5 More Indians started to work. Smeeked [smoked?] Salmon served out.

Tu. 6 James Tait and Wife absconded to Soack. One Bull got for the Cows. J. Wilson and the Author, ¾ Drunk.

We. 7 R. Anderson, G. Deans, & J. Montgomery imprisoned for one month. Robert, & Will. Weir apprehended. Steam Boat “Beaver” arrived with the Crew of the Brig “Vancouver.”[32]

Th. 8 Andrew Hume, & Duncan Lidgate got a house each.

Fr. 9 Each Family got a stew-pan, and girdle [griddle].

Sa. 10 Three Sheep killed and divided.

Mo. 12 Brig “Mary Dare” sailed for San Francisco.

Tu. 13 John Hall, Engineer, removed from his house here. Blankets served out to each Family. 1 pair.

We. 14 James Wilson, & the Author’s Vent put up. Steam Boat “Beaver” sailed on her trading expedition.

 Sa. 17 One Lamb killed. Pork served out. Screw Steamer “Otter,” & Brig, “Recovery,” arrived from C[oal]. Mines. The Author 3/4 Drunk. James Wilson 1/2 Drunk. Letters arrived from Britain.

Tu. 20 James Stewarts Vent put up.

We. 21 Andrew Hume, & Duncan Lidgate’s Vent put up. Brig “Recovery” sailed for the Sandwich Islands.

 Fr. 23 John Hall, & James Whyte’s vent put up. Wet day. Flour brought up.

Sa. 24 Potatoes served out. James Wilson whole Drunk. James Liddle 3/4 d. The Author 1/2 Drunk.

Mo. 26 Screw Steamer “Otter” sailed for Port Simpson.

Tu. 27 Peter Bartleman stricken work. William Veitch, and James Liddie’s, Vent put up.

We. 28 Another Saw-table erected. One Calf died. Peter Bartleman removed with his house to the Fort.

 Th. 29 Peter Bartleman started to work.

Fr. 30 American Steam Frigate “Active” visited Port, an express sent from Dungeness, for her assisstance [sic], against the Indians.[33]

OCTOBER

Sa. 1 Three Sheep killed and divided.

We. 5 H.M. Frigate “Trincomalee” arrived from Sitka and Queen Charlotte’s Island. Showers. R. Anderson, G. Deans, & J. Montgomery liberated from Prison. All the Indians dropped work.

Th. 6 William, and John Weir imprisoned for one month. James Wilson whole drunk.

Fr. 7 One Sheep killed.

Sa. 8 Three Sheep killed and divided.

  1. 9 Showers.

Tu. 11 Flour Mill erected. Wet day.

We. 12 Commenced to Plough piece of land for wheat. More Indians started to work.

Th. 13 Showers. American Steam Frigate “Active” arrived from Dungeness.

Fr. 14 American Steam Frigate “Active” sailed out of Port.

Sa. 15 Three Sheep killed and divided. All the Indians dropped work.

  1. 16 Wet day.

Mo. 17 Wet day. 12 Seamen belonging to the Frigate “Trincomalee” started to work here.

Tu. 18 Splendid Theatre on board the Frigate “Trincomalee.” Mrs. Irvine gave birth to a female c[hild].

We. 19 The Seamen belonging to the “Trincomalee” Frigate dropped work.

Sa. 22 Three Sheep killed and divided. Commenced to make flour.

  1. 23 Mrs. Veitch’s child baptized on board the “Trincomalee” Frigate. Wet night.

Tu. 25 Frigate “Trincomalee” sailed for San Francisco. Screw Steamer “Otter” arrived from Port Simpson.

We. 26 Saw Mill going all night.

Fr. 28 Screw Steamer “Otter” sailed for Coal Mines. Showery Weather.

Sa. 29 Four Sheep killed, three divided. Doctor’s Wife gave birth to a male child.[34] High wind & Rain.

  1. 30 Mrs. Montgomery’s child baptized.

Mo. 31 Mrs. Tait gave birth to a female child. More Indians started work.

NOVEMBER

Tu. 1 Wheat Sown. Saw Mill Shed slabbed all round. No Pork served out.

We. 2 Jack Humphrey dropped work. Pump of Engine broke. Frosty.

Th. 3 Fresh Herring served out. Pump of Engine mended. Grinding wheat all night.

Fr. 4 William, and John Weir, liberated from Prison. Quarters Pay due, and settled.

Sa. 5 Peter Bartleman, taken Money for his Rations.[35] Thom Bates dropped work. Sleet and Snow.

  1. 6 Wet day.

Mo. 7 James Wilson, and the Author taken Money for their Rations. Brig “Mary Dare” arrived from S[an]. Francis[co].

Tu. 8 Grinding wheat all night. Rain.

We. 9 2 Vices, 1 Anvil, 2 Hand Saws, Cargo of Iron, received from S[an]. Francisco. Prayer Meeting started. Screw Steamer “Otter” arrived from C[oal]. Mines. Potato.

Th. 10 John Instant 1/2 Drunk. Rain.

Fr. 11 John Russel ¾ Drunk. Rain.

Sa. 12 Three Sheep killed and divided. Rain.

  1. 13 Rain.

Mo. 14 American Barque “Swallow “ arrived in Port. Rain.

Tu. 15 Smiths Shop shingled. Rain.

We. 16 Pork served out. Rain.

Th. 17 Screw Steamer “Otter” sailed Nisqually. J. Instant whole Drk. J. Stewart 1/2 Drk. Barque “Swallow”[36] sailed. Johnstone Engineer’s House burnt down. Rain.

Fr. 18 J. Instant whole Dk. J. Russel 1/2 Dk.

Sa. 19 John Instant whole Drunk. Letters arrived from Britain. Rain.

  1. 20 Mrs. Greenwood gave birth to a female child. Rain.

Mo. 21 Schooner “Honolullu” arrived in Port. Rain.

Tu. 22 Frost.

We. 23 Frost and Snow.

Th. 24 Schooner “Honolullu” sailed out of Port. Rain.

Fr. 25 Earthquake felt at Fort Victoria. Rain.

Sa. 26 Rain.

  1. 27 Rain.

Mo. 28 Screw Steamer “Otter” arrived from Nisqually with Fresh Beef and Live Stock. Mail came in. Snow.

Tu. 29 Potatoe House put up. John Goudy’s Wife died. Rain.

We. 30 J. Instant Dk. The Author Dk. Fresh beef served out. Indians dropped work. Flour came up.

 DECEMBER

Th. 1 W. Veitch 1/2 Dk. J. Whyte 1/2 Dk. The Author whole Dk. Rain.

Fr. 2 James Wilson whole Dk. Fresh beef served out. Screw Steamer “Otter” sailed [for] C[oal]. Mines. Rain.

Sa. 3 Rain.

  1. 4 Rain.

Mo. 5 Monthly Ration Pay due, and settled. More Indians started to work. Rain.

We. 7 Mr. McKenzie got the Brig “Vancouver’s” Boat.

Th. 8 Rain.

Fr. 9 Rain.

Sa. 10 Steam Boat “Beaver” arrived from her trading expedition.

  1. 11 Frosty morning, Wet night.

Mo. 12 Rain.

We. 14 Screw Steamer “Otter” arrived from Coal Mines.

Th. 15 Steam Boat “Beaver” sailed Bellview[37] Island with Sheep. Mail came in.

Fr. 16 Brig “Mary Dare” sailed for England. Screw Steamer “Otter” sailed for Bellview Island.

Sa. 17 Steam Boat “Beaver,” and Screw Steamer “Otter” arrived from Bellview Island.

Mo. 19 Cooking Galley, and Hen-House put up. Three French Canadians started to square wood.

Tu. 20 Screw Steamer “Otter” sailed to rescue the Crew of the Ship “Lord Western.”[38] Flour came up.

We. 21 Prayer Meeting dissolved. Frosty weather.

Th. 22 Enoch Morris started to work. Frost and Snow.

Fr. 23 Five Sheep killed and divided. Schooner “Honolullu” arrived in Port. Theatrical Play and Ball, held at F[ort]. Victoria by the H. B. C.’s Clerks and Officers.

  1. 25 Wet day. Screw Steamer “Otter” arrived with Captain, and remaining part of the Crew of the “L[ord]. W[estern].”

Mo. 26 Holiday given. Mail came in. Schooner “Honolullu” sailed out of Port.

Tu. 27 Grinding wheat all night. Rain.

Fr. 30 Monthly Ration Pay Settled, not due or 2d. January. Grinding wheat all night.

Sa. 31 One Dwelling-house finished

 

 

 

 

1854.

JANUARY.

  1. 1 Drouthy New Year.[39]

Mo. 2 Holiday given. Brig “Rose” arrived from San Francisco. Very wet day.

Tu. 3 Brig “Recovery” arrived from the Sandwich Islands.

We. 4 Tremendous hard frost.

Th. 5 Screw Steamer “Otter” sailed Bellview [i.e. San Juan] Island. Indians dropped work.

Fr. 6 More Indians started to work.

Sa. 7 Slight fall of snow. Barque “Fanny Major” arrived in Port.

  1. 8 Rain.

Mo. 9 John Russel removed to the Farm. Rain.

Tu. 10 Brig “Rose” sailed Coal Mines. Signed a Petition to throw off Judge Cameron[40].

We. 11 Brig “Archimades” arrived in Port.[41] Showers of snow.

Th. 12 Frost and snow.

Fr. 13 Severe Frost.

Sa. 14 One dwelling house finished. Mrs. Cooper gave birth to a female child.

  1. 15 Andrew Muir and Isabella Weir proclaimed for marriage.

Mo. 16 Brig “Archimades” sailed. Screw Steamer “Otter” sailed. James Wilson whole D. The Author whole.

Tu. 17 John Hall dropped work. J. Instant whole Drunk.

We. 18 John Instant 3/4 D. James Stewart 3/4 P. John Hall 3/4 Drunk.

Th. 19 Screw Steamer “Otter” arrived. Most severe frost.

Fr. 20 Heavy fall of snow 18 inches deep.

  1. 22 Docters child died.[42]

Mo. 23 Governor Stevens arrived[43] in Sloop “Sarah Stone.”[44]

Tu. 24 Screw Steamer “Otter” sailed Nisqually.

We. 25 J. Hall removed to the Fort. J. Downie removed to Hall’s house. P. Bartleman removed to the Farm.

Th. 26 Tremendous frost lasted from the 12th instant.

Fr. 27 Rain. Sa. 28 Sloop “Sarah Stone” sailed. Rain.

  1. 29 Screw Steamer “Otter” arrived from Nisqually with fresh meat. Brig “Recovery” sailed Sandwich Island.

Mo. 30 Monthly Ration Pay due and settled. J. Wilson whole D. The Author whole Drunk.

Tu. 31 Andrew Muir and Isabella Weir married.

FEBRUARY.

We. 1 Screw Steamer “Otter” sailed Bellview Island and Nisqually. Frosty morning.

Th. 2 Mr. Staines gained a law plea over Duet.[45] Brig “Rose” visited Port.

Fr. 3 Fresh Beef served out. Barque “Matilda” visited Esquimalt. Showers.

Sa. 4 Public Meeting held on the state of the Colony. Superscription set a going in purpose to send Mr. Staines home, to lay the proceedings before the House of Parliament.[46] God speed. Indians dropped work.

 Mo. 6 Quarters Pay due.

Tu. 7 Screw Steamer “Otter” arrived from Nisqually with fresh meat.

We. 8 James Downie ½ Drunk.

Th. 9 W. Veitch ¾ D. Enoch Morris ¾ D. J. Wilson 1/2 D. Fresh beef served out. John Russel ¾ D. Peter Bartleman ¾ D.

Sa. 11 Canadians put up a bught [?] for catching cattle.

Mo. 13 More Indians started to work.

Tu. 14 Showers of snow, Frosty. Screw Steamer “Otter” sailed San Francisco.

We. 15 Canadians commenced to fence a field.

Sa. 18 Showers.

Mo. 20 John Instant whole Drunk.

Tu. 21 Peter Bartleman 3/4 D. “Cock Watt” and “Saucy Jack” arrived.

We. 22 Barque “Fanny Major” sailed. Mr. Staines left for England on his important mission.

Th. 23 Celebrated Bacchanalian hunt.

Fr. 24 John Russel % D. Author almost whole [drunk].

Sa. 25 Monthly Ration pay due, not settled, want of money. J. Wilson 3/4 D. The Author 3/4 D.

  1. 26 Schooner “Honolullu” arrived from San Francisco. J. Wilson 3/4 D. J. Whyte 3/4 D. Rain.

Mo. 27 William Veitch ¾ D. James Wilson ¾  D.

Tu. 28 “Cock Watt” & “Saucy Jack” sailed, T. Reed and other two men escaped to America.

MARCH.

We. 1 Scientific meeting instituted. Schooner “Honolullu” sailed out of Port.

Th. 2 Schooner “William Allen” arrived with a cargo of sawed lumber.

Fr. 3 John Russel 3/4 D. James Wilson 3/4 D. The Author 3/4 D.

Sa. 4 Mrs. Yates gave birth to a female child. John Russel whole Drunk.

  1. 5 John Instant ¾ Drunk. Schooner “William Allen” sailed.

Tu. 7 More Indians started to work. Commenced to plough.

We. 8 Lecture on the pleasures of studying the sciences, by W. Veitch.

Th. 9 One Sow ferryed [farrowed]. Rain.

Fr. 10 One field fenced in. Canadians dropped work. One Sow ferryed.

Sa. 11 Commenced to fence in the gardens. One Sow ferryed.

  1. 12 Showers.

Tu. 14 Mail came in.

We. 15 Lecture on the discoveries of Optical science, by the Author.

Fr. 17 Smiths dropped work for want of coals.

Sa. 18 Mail came in.

Mo. 20 Commenced to plant in the gardens.

Tu. 21 John Russel & Peter Bartleman fought a battle. J. Russel ½ D. S. B. “Beaver” sailed.

We. 22 Rehearsal of Wilson’s “Tales of the Borders,” by James Downie. Peas Sown.

Th. 23 Smiths commenced to work. Steam Boat “Beaver” arrived.

Fr. 24 Mrs. Whyte gave birth to a male child.

Sa. 25 Monthly Ration Pay due & settled. J. Wilson D. W. Veitch 3/4 D. The Author 3/4 D.

Mo. 27 Wet Morning.

Tu. 28 Mrs. Cornelius gave birth to a female child.

We. 29 Lecture on the Nobility of man by James Deans. Screw Steamer “Otter” arrived from San Francisco, brought a Mail along with her.

 [Entries for April and May, 1854, are missing in the original.]

JUNE

Fr. 2 Showers.

Sa. 3 Six Sheep killed and divided.

Mo. 5 One Bull drowned in the Rapids. Thunder showers. Pair of Horses started to work.

Tu. 6 Smith-shop shut up. Screw Steamer “Otter” arrived.

We. 7 Lecture on the Phases of the Moon by James Deans.

Th. 8 Showers.

  1. 11 Thunder showers.

Mo. 12 John Crjttle and wife removed to Mr. Skinner’s.[47]  Mail came in.

We. 14 Lecture “from the flood to the times of Abraham,” by James Wilson.

Fr. 16 Screw Steamer “Otter” sailed Fraser’s River.

Sa. 17 Monthly Ration Pay due. The Author 1/2 D. Showers.

Mo. 19 Lime Avenue fenced in. Jack Humphrey started to work.

Tu. 20 Screw Steamer “Otter” arrived from Fraser’s River.[48]  Showers.

We. 21 Lecture “on the propriety of Prayer.” Barque “Thomasine” sailed Sandwich Islands.

Th. 22 Showers.

Fr. 23 Turnips sown.

Sa. 24 Showers.

  1. 25 Drizzly Rain.

Mo. 26  S.S. “Otter” sailed Fraser’s River along with the Governor. Thomas Williams started to work. First Lime Kiln burnt off.

Tu. 27 Mrs. Guthrie (Helen Fisher) died.

We. 28 Lecture “on the wonders of civilization” by the Author. Peter Bartleman 3/4 D. Mrs. McNeil gave birth to a male child.

Th. 29 Showers.

Fr. 30 Five sheep killed and divided. Wet day.

JULY.

Sa. 1 Public Sale of Horses at View Field farm. Mail came in.

  1. 2 James Jeal died.

Tu. 4 Showers.

We. 5 Tales of “Duncan Fraser, and the Seer’s Cave” recited by James Downie.

Th. 6 Licences for selling Grog granted 120£ per Annum.

Sa. 8 S. S. “Otter” arrived. The Late Mr. Staines’ Farm Stock sold by Public Auction. Yankee Scow arrived from Bellingham Bay with sawn timber.

Mo. 10 More Indians started to work.

Tu. 11 J. Wilson whole D. Yankee Scow sailed Nisqually for Live Stock.

We. 12 Lecture “who is the working man” by James Deans.

Th. 13 Indians dropped work. Dick Williams, Hollains, and 7 Indians drowned.

Fr. 14 Four Sheep killed and divided.

Sa. 15 Monthly Ration Pay due. Brig “Cadboro” arrived. Turnips sown. S. S. “Otter” sailed.

  1. 16 Screw Steamer “Otter” arrived.

Mo. 17 Screw Steamer “Otter“sailed. Commenced to mow.

Tu. 18 Screw Steamer “Otter” arrived.

We. 19 Lecture from the times of Abraham, to the glory of the Roman Empire, by J. Wilson.

Fr. 21 Mail came in.

Mo. 24 Very warm weather.

We. 26 Lecture on the duty and advantage of Prayer, by William Veitch.

Th. 27 Mail came in.

Fr. 28 Four Sheep killed and divided. John Instant whole D. James Downie 1/2 D.

Sa. 29 Yankee Scow arrived with sheep & cattle from Nisqually. James Wilson whole D.

Mo. 31 Turnips thinned.

AUGUST.

Tu. 1 Commenced to shear.

We. 2 Lecture on the Earths Diameter, Circumference, Revolution &c by the Author.

Th. 3 Cattle Shed put up. James Whyte ½ DB. Magistrates declared by Government.[49]

Fr. 4 Quarters Pay due. Screw Steamer “Otter” sailed. One sheep killed.

  1. 6 Schooner “Honolullu” arrived from San Francisco.

Mo. 7 Mrs. Liddle gave birth to a female child.

Tu. 8 Screw Steamer “Otter” arrived. Barn Yard fenced in.

We. 9 Description of the River Jordan by James Deans. Brick kiln burnt off. Showers.

Fr. 11  2nd  Lime Kiln burnt off. Schooner “Honolullu” sailed.

Sa. 12 6 Sheep killed & divided. John Instant whole D. The Author ½ D. Monthly Ration Pay due.

Mo. 14 Colonial Roads commenced to make.[50]

We. 16 Tales of the “Just Retribution,” and the “Young Laird of Towsielaw,” recited by J. Downie.

Th. 17 James Whyte ½ D.

Fr. 18 Wet day.

Sa. 19 Indians dropped work. Mail came in.

  1. 20 John Instant whole D. Duncan Lidgate 1/2 D.

Mo. 21 Gideon and his Gang commenced to build a School, and School house.[51]

Tu. 22 James Wilson ½  D. The Author ½ D.

We. 23 Lecture on the “Immortality of the Soul,” by James Wilson.

Th. 24 Showers. One Sow killed.

Fr. 25 Two Swine killed.

Sa. 26 Brig “Cadboro” arrived from Coal Mines.

  1. 27 Thunder, lightning, and rain.

Mo. 28 More Indians started to work.

Tu. 29 New Forge put up.

We. 30 Lecture on the “Atmosphere,” by William Veitch.

Th. 31 Brig “Cadboro” sailed Coal Mines.

SEPTEMBER.

Fr. 1 John Instant ¾ D.  One Sow killed.

Mo. 4 Showers. Bombardment of Petropaulski in Kamtschatka.

Tu. 5 Harvest completed.

We. 6 Geographical description of England, by the Author. Brig “Rose” arrived from Coal Mines.

Th. 7 Our Honourable Court attempting to try Captain Mills.[52]

Fr. 8 Barque “Prince Albert“[53] arrived from England.

Sa. 9 Monthly Ration Pay due. P. Bartleman ¾ D. The Author 3/4 D. Four sheep killed & divided.

  1. 10 John Instant ¾ D. Thomas Williams 3/4 D. Jack Humphrey ½ D.

Mo. 11 Carpenters Shop put up. Mail came in.

Tu. 12 Captain Mills released from prison.

We. 13 Tales of the “Young Laird of Rycan & Brunsfield Links” recited by James Downie.

 Sa. 16 S. Steamer “Otter” sailed San Francisco. American S. Frigate “Active” visited Port. John Instant ¾ D.

Mo. 18 Steam Boat “Major Tompkins” commenced to run the Mail between Victoria and Olympia every week.[54]

Tu. 19 Turning Lathe put up.

We. 20 Geneological description of the Anglo-Saxon race, by James Deans.

Sa. 23 School-house frame erected,[55] whole company in general notoriously drunk.

  1. 24 Brig “Cadboro” arrived from Nanaimo.

Mo. 25 John Instant whole D.

Tu. 26 Do. do. do. do. Showers.

We. 27 Lecture “on the immortality of the soul,” continued, by James Wilson.

Th. 28 American Steam Frigate “Active” visited Port. Showers.

Fr. 29 One Cow killed. Brig. “Cadboro” sailed Nanaimo.

Sa. 30 Barque “Prince Albert” sailed Nanaimo. Duncan Lidgate 1/2 D.

OCTOBER.

  1. 1 Showers.

Tu. 3 H.M.S.’s “President,” 50 Guns, “Pique,” 42, & Steam Frigate “Virago,” 6, arrived from an unsuccessful attack upon Petropuliski, in Kamtschatke.[56]

 We. 4 Lecture “on the pressure of the Atmosphere,” continued by William Veitch.

Th. 5 Captured Russian Transport ship “Sitka” arrived. S. F. “Virago” sailed Nanaimo.[57] 

Fr. 6 Mr. McKenzie’s put up. Jack Humphrey, & Thom Williams dropped work.

Sa. 7 Monthly Ration Pay due. J. Wilson ¾ D. James Downie 1/2 D. Will. Veitch 1/2 D. Frosty.

  1. 8 Mr. McKenzie, J. Whyte, J. Downie, J. Liddle, & the Author’s children baptized by the Chaplain of the “President.” Sermon preached by the Chaplain of the “Pique.”

Mo. 9 Dinner given to the Governor on board the “President.”

Tu. 10 Wet day.

We. 11 Geographical description of Scotland, and Ireland by the Author.

Th. 12 S. S. “Otter” arrived from San Francisco. Brig “San Francisco” sailed.

Sa. 14 Steam Frigate “Virago” arrived from Nanaimo. “Yankee Scow” arrived from Bellingham Bay.

  1. 15 Transport Ship “Sitka” 10 guns sailed San Francisco. Sermon by the Chaplain of the “President.”

 Mo. 16 Frigates, “President,” and “Pique” sailed San Francisco.

We. 18 Harry Teasdale the smuggler of Embleton, recited by James Downie.

Th. 19 John Instant whole D.

Fr. 20 Four Swine killed. J0. Instant whole D.

  1. 22 Steam Frigate “Virago” sailed San Francisco.

Tu. 24 Screw Steamer “Otter” sailed Fort Simpson.

We. 25 Geographical, and Political view of Vancouvers Island, by James Deans.

Th. 26 One working bullock died.

Fr. 27 Frequent showers.

Sa. 28 Brig “Rose” arrived from San Francisco.

  1. 29 Duncan Lidgate whole D.

Mo. 30 John Instant whole D.

NOVEMBER.

We. 1 Lecture on the resurrection of the body, by James Wilson.

Th. 2 Two more vents put up. Provision Store, & Slaughter house finished.

Fr. 3 One Bullock killed. Monthly Ration Pay settled.

Sa. 4 Steam Boat “Beaver” arrived from her trading expedition. Quarters pay due.

  1. 5 Duncan Lidgate whole D. J. Wilson 1/2 D. The Author 3/4 D.

Mo. 6 Wheat sown.

We. 8 Geographical description of Sweden and Norway, by the Author.

Fr. 10 New Wharf erected. Drizzly rain.

Mo. 13 J. Wilson whole D. J. Downie 3/4 D. The Author whole D.

Tu. 14 Duncan Lidgate ¾ D. John Instant whole D.

We. 15 Tales of “Lyol Lisle,” & “Raulin Roarin Willie,” recited by James Downie.

Th. 16 School vents finished.

Fr. 17 One Cow killed.

Sa. 18 Showers.

  1. 19 Barque “Prince Albert” arrived from Nanaimo. Wet day.

Mo. 20 James Tait paid his passage money.

Rain. Tu. 21 Barque “Prince Albert” sailed for England. Rain.

We. 22 Lecture from Romans 5 Ch. 19 V. by James Deans. Rain.

Th. 23 Barque “Princess Royal” arrived from England with Miners.[58] Rain.

Sa. 25 S. Boat “Beaver” & Brig “Recovery” sailed Nanaimo with the Miners. Peter Bartleman ¾ D. The Author ¾ D.

Mo. 27 Rain.

Tu. 28 Rain. One Sheep killed.

We. 29 Lecture on the inventions of man by James Wilson. One Pig killed.

DECEMBER.

Fr. 1 Screw Steamer “Otter,” & Brig “Cadboro” arrived from Nanaimo.

Sa. 2 Monthly Ration Pay due &settled. Two pigs killed. Frosty.

  1. 3 Frosty.

Mo. 4 Ship “Mason” visited Port. Duncan Lidgate ¾ D. Frosty.

Tu. 5 Brig “Recovery” sailed Fraser’s River. Frosty.

We. 6 Geographical description of Denmark by the Author. James Stewart ½ D.

Th. 7 More cattle got for the farm.

Fr. 8 Schoolmaster got a house.[59]

Sa. 9 James Wilson taking money for his Rations.

Mo. 11 Rain.

Tu. 12 Mr. McKenzie whole D.

We. 13 Lecture on the Atmosphere by William Veitch.

Th. 14 Rain. Fr. 15 One Sheep, and two Swine killed.

Sa. 16 Celebrated feasts of Bacchus. John Russel taken money for his Rations.

Mo. 18 Frosty.

Tu. 19 Steam Boat “Beaver” sailed Nanaimo.

We. 20 Tales of the “Cloth-Merchant of Selkirk,” “Paddy gone to the West Indies” and “Mary-Martin,” recited by James Downie.

Th. 21 Slight rain.

Fr. 22 Two Swine killed. Store broken into. Rain.

Sa. 23 Rain.

  1. 24 Rain.

Mo. 25 Christmas celebrated by Fiddling, dancing, singing, eating, and drinking. Rain. Brig “Recovery “ arrived.

Tu. 26 Rain.

We. 27 Rain. Scientific meeting postponed till after the daftdays.[60]

Th. 28 Rain.

Fr. 29 Rain.

Sa. 30 Monthly Ration Pay due and settled. Frosty.

  1. 31 Frosty. Steam Boat “Beaver” arrived.

1855.

JANUARY.

Mo. 1 New Years day celebrated in a glorious Bacchanalian manner. Frosty.

Tu. 2 Screw Steamer “Otter” arrived. Frosty. Mrs. Porter gave birth to a female child.

We. 3 Fall of snow. Frosty.

Th. 4 Frosty.

Fr. 5 Mrs. Stewart gave birth to a male child. Frosty.

Sa. 6 Yankee Scow arrived. Rain and Sleet.

  1. 7 Rain and snow.

Mo. 8 Mr. Clark taken up his school. Rain.

Fr. 12 Brig “Rose” arrived from San Francisco. Frosty.

Sa. 13 Barque “Princess Royal” sailed for England. J. Russel stopped taking money for his rations. Brig “Recovery” sailed Sandwich Islands.

We. 17 Wet day.

Th. 18 Showers of sleet and snow.

Fr. 19 Another Bacchanalian spree held this evening. Showers.

Sa. 20 Screw Steamer “Otter” sailed San Francisco.

  1. 21 Rain.

Mo. 22 Rain.

Tu. 23 Rain.

We. 24 James Deans bought an Indian woman.

Th. 25 Steam Boat “Beaver” sailed Bellvieue. Rain and sleet.

Sa. 27 Monthly Ration Pay due. S. Boat “Beaver” arrived.

  1. 28 Barque “Colinda” sailed Nanaimo.[61] Walter Ross died[62].

Mo. 29 James Deans divorced his Indian woman.

We. 31 Brief review of ancient and modern Athens, by James Wilson.

Sa. 3 Rain.

  1. 4 George Jeal drowned in the arm.

Mo. 5 Quarterly Pay due and settled.

Tu. 6 Search made for George Jeal, not to be found. John Smith started to work.

We. 7 Mrs. Hume gave birth to a female child. Frosty. J. Instant 3/4 D.

Th. 8 Mrs. McAulay gave birth to a female child.

Fr. 9 Rain.

Sa. 10 Flying Showers. Steam Boat “Major Tompkins” wrecked on Mc Aulay’s Point.

Mo. 12 Showers.

Tu. 13 William Veitch whole D. James Wilson whole D. The Author whole D.

Th. 15 Old-Store weather-boarded.

Fr. 16 Mrs. Irving gave birth to a female child.

Sa. 17 J. Wilson whole D. J. Downie 3/4 D. J. Russel D. The Author whole D.

Mo. 19 Wreck of the” Major Tompkins towed into harbour. Frosty.

Tu. 20 S.B. “Beaver” conveyed the crew and passengers of the “Major Thompkins” over to Port Townsend.

We. 21 Frosty.

Th. 22 Frosty.

Fr. 23 School and school-house finished. [63]

24 Pine-field fenced in.

Sa. 24 Peter Bartleman dropped taking money for his rations. Mo[nthly]. Ra[tion]. Pay settled.

  1. 25 Frosty.

Mo. 26 Chess commenced to put up the saw-mill frame. Frosty.

We. 28 Fresh weather. Bridge over the Arm completed.

MARCH.

Th. 1 Wreck of the “Major Tompkins” sold by public auction.

Fr. 2 Schoolmaster removed to his new house. S.S. “Otter” arrived from S. Francisco.

Sa. 3 James Wilson dropped taking money for his Rations.

Mo. 5 High wind and rain.

Tu. 6 Showers. Steam Boat “Beaver” sailed Nanaimo.

We. 7 Rain.

Th. 8 “Major Tompkins’s” bell hung at the end of the school.[64]

Fr. 9 George Jeal’s body found.

Sa. 10 5. S. “Otter,” and Brig” Cadboro“ sailed Nanaimo. Showers.

  1. 11 Schoolmaster started to preach.

Mo. 12 Coroner’s inquest held upon Jeal’s body, buried also. Showers.

Tu. 13 Barque “Colinda,” and Steam Boat “Beaver” arrived from Nanaimo.

We. 14 Duncan Lidgate whole D. J. Instant whole D. The Author whole D.

Fr. 16 Barque “Colinda” sailed San Francisco.

  1. 18 Frosty. Mo. 19 Mrs. Helmkin gave birth to a female child.

Tu. 20 Major Thompkins’s Force-Pump placed on the well. Frosty mornings.

We. 21 Steam Boat “Beaver” sailed Nanaimo along with the Governor.

Th. 22 Yankee Scow arrived from Bellingham bay with sawed lumber for bridge.

Fr. 23 S.B. “Beaver” arrived.

Sa. 24 The Author dropped taking money for his rations. G. Jeal’s effects sold by auction.

  1. 25 Mrs. Wilson gave birth to a still born female child.

Mo. 26 Mrs. Wilson’s child buried. Commenced to sow.

Tu. 27 Mr. McKenzie laid seige to Peter Bartleman’s castle and destroyed it.[65]

We. 28 Peter Bartleman stricken work.

Th. 29 Yankee Scow sailed Soack, with the Major Thompkins’s boiler and engine.[66]

Fr. 30 Slight rain.

APRIL.

  1. 1 Ship “Marquis of Bute” arrived from England, brought a minister.[67] Showers.

Mo. 2 Brig “Recovery” arrived from the Sandwich Islands.

We. 4 Andrew Hume’s son half-drowned.

Th. 5 Quarters Session, Robert Porter imprisoned for six months. Rain.

Fr. 6 Good Friday kept.

Sa. 7 Brig “Rose” arrived from San Francisco.

Mo. 9 John Smith dropped work.

Tu. 10 Andrew Hume 3/4 Drunk. Brig “Rose” sailed Nanaimo.

Th. 12 Peter Bartleman sentenced to be sent home.

Fr. 13 Screw Steamer “Otter” and Brig “Cadboro” arrived.

Sa. 14 Frosty mornings.

  1. 15 John Instant whole D. Duncan Lidgate ¾ D.

Mo. 16 Duncan Lidgate whole D. John Instant ¾ D.

Tu. 17 Steam B. “Beaver” sailed on her trading expedition. Fifteen Indians drowned by the upseting of a canoe.

We. 18 Slight rain.

Th. 19 House for Brick Machine put up.

Fr. 20 James Tait engaged again with Mr. McKenzie.

Sa. 21 S. S. “Otter” arrived from Belleviue with sheep.

Mo. 23 J. Tait started to work. Rev. E. Cridge paid us a visit. Showers.

We. 25 Frosty mornings.

Fr. 27 Blue Grouse served out.

Sa. 28 W. Veitch whole D. J. Wilson whole D. J. Downie 3/4, D. The Author whole D.

Mo. 30 John Instant whole D.

MAY.

Tu. 1 Mrs. Clark gave birth to a female child. Mr. McKenzie and J. Downie trying a wrestle.

We. 2 Two Private houses put up. Saw mill frame raised. J. Downie stricken work.

Th. 3 Brig “Recovery” arrived from Frasers River. The Author whole D.

Fr. 4 Barn frame raised. John Smith started to work. Quar. Pay due & settled.

Sa. 5 Screw Steamer “Otter” arrived from Nanaimo.

Tu. 8 S. S. “Otter” sailed Fraser’s River. Showers.

Fr. 11 Brig “Recovery” sailed Sandwich Islands.

Sa. 12 Eight Sheep killed and divided.

Mo. 14 Slight rain.

Th. 17 Duncan Lidgate ¾ D. John Russel ½ D.

Fr. 18 Peter Bartleman removed to his own house. S. S. “Otter” arrived.

  1. 20 Carpenters Shop went on fire but extinguished without much damage.

Tu. 22 S. S. “Otter” sailed Nisqually for sheep. James Liddle removed to P. Bartleman’s house. Mrs. Deans gave birth to a female child.

Th. 24 Victoria Races celebrated on Beacon hill. D. Lidgate 3/4 D. J. Instant ½ D. James Tait whole D.

Sa. 26 Eight Sheep killed & divided. S. S. “Otter” arrived from Nisqually with 700 Sheep.

Mo. 28 James Deans put on for a Shepherd.

Tu. 29 James Downie warned out of his house.

We. 30 Ship “Marquis of Bute” sailed.

Th. 31 Thom Bates started to work. Mrs. Capt. Muat [Mouat] gave birth to a male child.

 JUNE.

Fr. 1 Grand Picnic held on Esquimalt Bay in honour of Mr. Douglas’s son’s birth-day.

Sa. 2 James Downie, wife, and family removed to Mr. Skinner’s farm.

Mo. 4 James Stewart and Andrew Hume’s children baptized by the Rev. E. Cridge.

We. 6 Grand Picnic held at Soack. Warm weather.

Th. 7 John Smith dropped work. Steamer “Water Lilly “[68] visited Port with a batch of Yankees on a pleasure excursion.

Fr. 8 Court postponed owing to the Pie Nic.

Sa. 9 Six Sheep killed and divided.

  1. 10 Mrs. Clark died.

Mo. 11 Mrs. Clark opened. J. Whyte removed to a new house. John Hall removed with his house here. Batch of Defaulters fined. J. Stewart whole D. J. Tait whole D. J. Wilson 1/2 D.

Tu. 12 Saw Mill Shed went in fire little damage done.

We. 13 Mrs. Clark buried.

Th. 14 S. S. “Otter” sailed Nisqually.

Fr. 15 Refreshing rain.

Sa. 16 John Instant removed to J. Whyte’s house. The Author ¾ D. J. Wilson 1/2 D.

Mo. 18 Clay Mill erected.

We. 20 Bob Brown, and Harry Dame started to work.

Th. 21 Screw S. “Otter” arrived from Nisqually with cattle.

Sa. 23 Six Sheep killed and divided. Yankee Scow arrived.

Mo. 25 James Smith and the late James Geal’s widow married.

Tu. 26 Census of the Island taken.[69] Refreshing Showers.

We. 27 Showers.

Th. 28 S. S. “Otter” sailed Frasers River.

Fr. 29 Mrs. Veitch gave birth to a male child.

JULY.

Tu. 3 One Lamb killed. Engine going night and day scarcity of flour.

We. 4 James Wilson removed to a new house.

Th. 5 Licence for selling Grog granted 120£ per annum. Justice vanished, larceny.

Fr. 6 One Bullock killed. Refreshing Showers. S. S. “Otter” arrived from Fr’s. River.

Sa. 7 Fresh meat served out.

Mo. 9 Schooner “Agnes “ fitted up.

Tu. 10 Remarkable warm weather.

We. 11 John Instant whole D. James Wilson 3/4 D.

Th. 12 Duncan Lidgate whole D. John Russell whole D. The Author whole D.

Fr. 13 Mr. Parson opened his Public house with a grand spree.

  1. 15 Mrs. Greenwood gave birth to a male child.

We. 18 Mr. McKenzie bought the Schooner “Black Duck.”

Th. 19 H.Ms Steam Frigate “Brisk” 16 guns arrived from Petropaulovski and Sitka.

Fr. 20 Brig “Recovery” arrived from Sandwich Islands. George Greenwood engaged with Mr. McKenzie to sail the “Blackduck.”

Sa. 21 Four Sheep killed and divided. James Tait dropped work.

  1. 22 One Sheep killed.

Mo. 23 James Tait D. D. Lidgate 3/4 D. The Author 3/4 D.

Tu. 24 H.Ms S. “Dido” 18 guns arrived from Petropaulovski and Sitka.

We. 25 Mrs. Yates gave birth to a female child.

Th. 26 One Lamb killed.

Fr. 27 One Sheep killed.

Sa. 28 Mr. Clark’s School Examination held on a Royal scale.

Mo. 30 James Tait removed to Victoria. George Greenwood removed to Farm. Commenced to harvest. American Steam Frigate “Active” arrived in Port.

AUGUST.

We. 1 Chief Engineer of H. M S. “Brisk” died.

Fr. 3 American Steam Frigate “Active” sailed.

Sa. 4 Five Sheep killed and divided. Well sunk 27 feet deep. Quarters Pay due.

  1. 5 One Marine belonging to the “Brisk” drowned in Esquimalt Harbour.

Mo. 6 H. M S. “Dido” sailed for San Francisco. The “Black Duck” Launched.

Tu. 7 S. S. “Otter” sailed San Francisco. John Instant ¾ D. James Liddle ¾ D. HMs S. S. Frigate “Brisk” sailed San Francisco.

Th. 9 Bob Brown dropped work.

Fr. 10 Duncan. Lidgate 3/4 D.

Sa. 11 One Sheep killed. Foggy mornings. The “Black Duck” named “Jessie.”

  1. 12 John Instant 3/4 D.

Tu. 14 Brig “Recovery” sailed Sandwich Islands. Batteaux “Agnes” arrived.

We. 15 One Sheep killed. Batteaux “Agnes” sailed Fraser’s River. Mrs. Anderson gave birth to a female child.

Th. 16 Mr. Clark’s juvenile Pic Nic celebrated on Esquimalt Bay.

Fr. 17 One Bullock killed.

Sa. 18 Mr. McKenzie and Mr. Barr breaking the peace.

Mo. 20 Great Batch off to the gold-digging.

Tu. 21 H. M S. “Trincomalee” 26 guns arrived at Soack.

We. 22 Extraordinary warm.

Fr. 24 One Bullock killed.

Sa. 25 H. M’ S. “Trincomalee” arrived in Esquimalt Bay. Duncan Lidgate 3/4 D.

  1. 26. SS “Otter” arrived from San Francisco.

Mo. 27 H. M S. “Monarch” 84 guns arrived from San Francisco.

Tu. 28 Showers.

We. 29 One Bullock killed “Monarch.”

Th. 30 Two do’s do. do. Batteaux “Agness” arrived with salmon.

Fr. 31 Do. do. do.

SEPTEMBER.

Sa. 1 Four Bullocks killed for H.M.S. “Monarch.”

  1. 2 Heavy showers.

Mo. 3 Five Bullocks killed for H.M.S. “Monarch” & Cargo of sheep.

Tu. 4 Six do. S. S. “Otter” sailed Nisqually.

We. 5 William Veitch and George Greenwood’s children baptized by the Chaplain of the “Monarch.”

Th. 6 H.M.S. “Monarch” sailed San Francisco. Bob Brown started to work.

Fr. 7 One Bullock killed.

Mo. 10 James Wilson ¾ D. The Author ¾ D.

Tu. 11 5. S. “Otter” arrived. Schooner “Jessie” arrived. One Bullock killed “Trincomalee.” J. Wilson ¾ D. J. Instant ¾ D. John Hall dropped work.

Th. 13 Batteaux “Agnes” arrived. One Bullock killed “Trincomalee.” Will Stephens engaged with Mr. McKenzie.

Fr. 14 One Bullock killed “Trincomalee.” Showers.

Sa. 15 0. do & Two Sheep do. S. S. “Otter” sailed Nisqually. Showers.

Mo. 17 John Hall removed to Victoria. Mrs. Simpson gave birth to a male child.

We. 19 John Hall removed to J. Hall’s house. Showers. One Sheep killed.

Th. 20 One Sheep killed.

Fr. 21 Two Bullocks killed. S. S. “Otter” arrived.

Sa. 22 John Vine engaged with Mr. McKenzie.

  1. 23 Heavy showers Thunder and lightning.

Mo. 24 Three Sheep and one Bullock killed. Showers. Schooner “Jessie” sailed.

Tu. 25 Great Grand Ball Theatrical held at the Naval Hospitals.[70]

We. 26 Grand Theatrical opera celebrated at the Hospitals. Showers.

Fr. 28 Five Sheep killed. Dozen sent on board the “Trincomalee.”

Sa. 29 H.M.S. “President” 50 guns arrived.

  1. 30 H.M.S. “Trincomalee” sailed San Francisco.

OCTOBER

Mo. 1 One Bullock killed “President.” Showers.

Tu. 2 do.     do.          do.       do.         Schooner “Jessie” arrived.

We. 3 Do.     do.       do.       do.

Th. 4 Do.     do.       do.        do.   Harvest completed.

Fr. 5 One Bullock to be killed every day for the “President” a sheep now and then.

Sa. 6 Four Sheep killed and divided. J. Wilson ¾ D. Lidgate ¾ D.

Mo. 8 Bob Brown dropped work.

We. 10 Showers.

Th. 11 James Wilson ¾ D. John Instant ¾ D. Will Veitch 1/2 D. The Author ¾ D.

Fr. 12 George Greenwood and Andrew Hume fighting. Showers.

Sa. 13 Horse-races celebrated on Beacon-Hill. Fresh Beef served out.

  1. 14 William Stephens ¾ D.

Tu. 16 John Instant whole D. Duncan Lidgate ¾ D.

We. 17 Schooner “Jessie” sailed.

Th. 18 Brig “Recovery” arrived from the Sandwich Islands.

Fr. 19 Showers.

Sa. 20 Heavy rain. Fresh Beef served out. Schooner “Jessie” arrived with potatoes.

  1. 21 John Vine ¾ D. William Stephens 1/2 D.

We. 24 High wind with heavy rain.

Th. 25 Schooner “Jessie” sailed Theatrical Play and Ball held on board HMs S. “President.”

Sa. 27 Fresh Beef served out. Showers.

  1. 28 S. S. “Otter” arrived from Fort Simpson. 7 Children baptized on board the “President.”

Mo. 29 H.M S. “President” sailed San Francisco. D. Lidgate ¾ D. Frosty.

Tu. 30 Schooner “Jessie” arrived with potatoes.

We. 31 Schooner “Jessie” sailed Soack.

NOVEMBER.

 Th. 1 Mr. Longford’s[71] men completed their five years engagement. Frosty.

Fr. 2 One Bullock killed.

Sa. 3 Fresh meat served out. Schooner “Jessie” arrived.

  1. 4 American Steamer “Water Lilly” arrived in Port.

Mo. 5 Quarters Pay due. Showers.

Tu. 6 Schooner “Jessie” sailed Nanaimo with sheep.

We. 7 High wind and rain.

Th. 8 John Russel ¾ D. The Author 3/4 D. One Bullock killed.

Fr. 9 High wind.

Sa. 10 J. Wilson D. W. Veitch ½ D. The Author whole D. Brick kiln burnt off.

Mo. 12 Harry Pane dropped work.

Tu. 13 Schooner “Jessie” arrived from Nanaimo with coals.

Th. 15 John Instant whole D.

Fr. 16 S. S. “Otter” and Brig “Recovery” arrived from Fraser’s River.

Sa. 17 Fresh Mutton served out.

  1. 18 Heavey rain. Revd E. Cridge performed divine service at Craigflower.

Tu. 20 S. S. “Otter” sailed Nisqually. Frosty.

Fr. 23 One Bullock killed.

Sa. 24 Brig “Recovery” sailed Sandwich Islands.

Mo. 26 Heavy rain.

Tu. 27 S. S. “Otter” arrived Nisqually.

We. 28 High wind and heavy rain.

Th. 29 Heavy rain. Tremendous roll of thunder six o’clock evening.

DECEMBER

  1. 2 John Instant ¾ D. Thom Bate’s wife died.

Mo. 3 Mrs. Abernethy gave birth to a still-born male child.

Tu. 4 Meeting held to form a Christmas ball. Rain.

We. 5 Highwind.

Th. 6 Steam Boat “Beaver” arrived from her trading expedition.

Fr. 7 One Bullock killed.

Sa. 8 Schooner “Alice” driven back by stress of weather.[72]

  1. 9 Very wet day.

Tu. 11 S. B. “Beaver” sailed Bellvue. Showers.

We. 12 Showers.

Th. 13 Showers.

  1. 16 Showers. John Vine ¾ d.

Mo. 17 Barque “Princess Royal” arrived from England.

Th. 20 Showers.

Fr. 21 Frost and Snow. Six Sheep killed.

Sa. 22 S. S. “Otter” sailed San Francisco. D. Lidgate d. Severe Frost.

  1. 23 Frosty.

Mo. 24 Frost and snow.

Tu. 25 Christmas Ball celebrated with great glee. Most severe frost.

We. 26 High wind with keen frost.

Th. 27 Very Frosty.

Fr. 28 Frosty.

  1. 30 Still very Frosty.

Mo. 31 Showers of snow.

1856.

JANUARY.

Tu. 1 Divine service held by the Rev’ E. Cridge.[73] Great drinkings at night.

We 2 Fresh weather.

Th. 3 Showers and high wind.

Fr. 4 All arrived to work.

  1. 6 Showers.

Mo. 7 One Sow killed. Showry.

We. 9 Everything very quiet.

Fr. 11 S.B. “Beaver” arrived from a cruise up the Sound.

Sa. 12 S. S. “Otter” arrived from San Francisco.

We. 16 Remarkable fine weather.

Sa. 19 Frosty.

  1. 20 Revd E. Cridge performed divine service.

Mo. 21 William Stephens dropped work.

We. 23 Slight Showers.

Fr. 25 S. S. “Otter” arrived from Nanaimo. A Ball held for the benefit of James Tait.

  1. 27 No preaching to day.

We. 30 S. S. “Otter “ sailed Fort Simpson. Rain.

Th. 31 Rain.

FEBRUARY

 Fr. 1 A Subscription paper sent through for the benefit of John Davy.

  1. 3 No Sermon to day. Caleb Pike and Elizabeth Lidgate pro claimed for marriage.

Mo. 4 Quarter’s pay due.

Tu. 5 No Mails arriving on account of the Indian war.[74] 

Th. 7 Cap. Wishart[75] gained a law-plea over And. Hume. Mr. McKenzie[76] one over W. Millingto[n].

Fr. 8 George Greenwood ¾ D. The Author whole D. 7 Men run off from the “Ps. [Princess] Royal.” 4 Men escaped out of the Bastion belonging to the “Pss. Royal”

Sa. 9 Showers.

  1. 10 Mr. Clark[77] dropped his preaching altogether.

Tu. 12 Barque” Princess Royal “ sailed for England. Slight showers.

Sa. 16 Slight Frost.

  1. 17 Revd E. Cridge performed divine service.

Mo. 18 Mrs. Downie gave birth to a female child. Cold winds.

We. 20 The long-looked-for mail arrived.

Th. 21 One Boar killed. American S. Frigate “Active” visited Port.

Fr. 22 Caleb Pike and Elisabeth Lidgate married. S.S. “Otter” arrived. James Downie commenced to make bricks.

Mo. 25 Rain. Garden Park fenced in.

Tu. 26 Mr. Thorn engineer, and his son started to work.

Th. 28 Frosty mornings.

MARCH.

Mo. 3 Foggy mornings. Tu. 4 Recruiting commenced to form a local militia corps. Voltigeurs.[78] 

We. 5 Great dread of an Indian attack.

Th. 6 American Screw Steamer “Massachusetts” 4 guns visited Esquimalt harbour.[79]

Fr. 7 Sloop Esquimalt “Sarah Stone” arrived with the mail.

Sa. 8 S. S. “Otter” sailed San Francisco.

Mo. 10 Frosty mornings.

We. 12 Brig “Recovery” arrived from the Sandwich Islands.

Fr. 14 A fleet of 30 Indian canoes arrived from the North.

Sa. 15 John Russel commenced taking money for his rations. Mr. Moffat a clerk, and Miss McNeil a chief-traders daughter, married.[80]

  1. 16 Revd E. Cridge performed divine service.

Tu. 18 S.B. “Beaver” & Brig “Recovery” sailed Nanaimo.

We. 19 Schooner “Jessie” sailed along with Mr. McKenzie for potatoes.

Th. 20 Rain.

Fr. 21 Good Friday kept as a holiday. Heavy Showers.

Sa. 22 Sch. “Jessie” arrived with a small cargo of potatoes.

Tu. 25 Sch. “Jessie” sailed. Showers.

We. 26 Great Ball held at Victoria, riff-raff excluded.

Fr. 28 S. S. “Otter” arrived from San Francisco. Mr. Clark gave a great dinner.

Sa. 29 Sch. “Jessie” arrived. Joh. Russel D. Dun. Lidgate 3/4 D.

  1. 30 Mr. McKenzie gave a great dinner in opposition to M’ Clark.

Mo. 31 Ja. Stewart D. Jo. Vine 3/4 D. Brig “Recovery” arrived from Nanaimo.

APRIL.

We. 2 Sch. “Jessie” sailed.

Th. 3 Brig “Recovery” sailed San Francisco. High wind with rain.

Sa. 5 Steam Boat “Beaver” sailed on her trading expedition. Rain.

  1. 6 Heavy rain.

Tu. 8 A Batch of the Bob-tail giving false alarms at night.[81]  Frosty.

Fr. 11 One Bull killed.

  1. 13 Duncan Lidgate whole D. John Instant 3/4 D.

We. 16 Cold showery weather.

Fr. 18 Heavy rain.

Sa. 19 Fresh beef served out.

  1. 20 Revd E. Cridge performed divine service.

Mo. 21 American sloop of war “Decator” visited.[82]

Tu. Mr. Tod a retired Chief Trader impeached with cattle stealing.[83]

Sa. 26 Sloop “Sarah Stone” seized for smuggling grog.

We. 30 Pump of Engine broke.

MAY.

Th. 1 Mr. McKenzie removed into his new house.[84] heavy showers.

Fr. 2 Four sheep killed.

  1. 4 American Sloop of war “Decatur” sailed Puget Sound.

Tu. 6 Very warm weather.

We. 7 S. S. “Otter” sailed Beilvue [San Juan Island] with a cargo of horses.

Fr. 9 Great discoveries of gold in different parts of the Island.[85] 

Sa. 10 John Instant 3/4 D. Brick-kiln burnt off.

  1. 11 Refreshing rain.

Mo. 12 One sheep killed.

Tu. 13 American S. S. “John Hancock” visited Esquimalt.

Fr. 16 Brig “Recovery” arrived from San Francisco. Five sheep killed.

Sa. 17 John Instant dropped work.

  1. 18 Mrs. Captain Cooper gave birth to a female child.

Tu. 20 Duncan Lidgate, John Instant, & Robert Laing apprehended for sheep shooting into Mr. McKenzie’s house.[86]

Th. 22 Three 4 killed by dogs.

Fr. 23 Five sheep killed.

Sa. 24 Victoria Races celebrated on Beacon Hill. Duncan Lidgate, John Instant, and Robert Laing bailed out of prison.

  1. 25 Refreshing showers. Brig “Recovery” sailed Sandwich Islands.

Mo. 26 John Instant removed to Esquimalt bay. One sheep killed by dogs. William Brown & wife removed to Craig Flower.

We. 28 Showery weather.

Fr. 30 Four Sheep killed.

Sa. 31 Another examination held on D. Lidgate, J. Instant, and R. Laing.

JUNE.

Mo. 2 Commenced sheep shearing.

We. 4 Refreshing showers.

Th. 5 Dun. Lidgate fined 5£ Jno. Instant. Joseph Armstrong killed by a horse draging him along the ground.

Fr. 6 5 Sheep killed. Mrs. Cridge gave birth to a male child. Coroner’s inquest held on the body of Joseph Armstrong. Mo.

Mo. 9 A law passed to form a house of representatives.[87]

We. 11, Very warm weather

 Fr. 13 Five Sheep killed.

Sa. 14 James ¾ D, The Author ¾ D.

  1. 15 Revd E. Cridge performed divine service.

Tu. 17 Very warm.

Th 19 James Newburgh disappeared.[88]

Fr. 20 Five sheep killed.

Sa. 21 Ineffectual search made for the person of James Newburgh.

Mo. 23 High winds.

Th. 26 Another ineffectual search made for the person of James Newbird. Schooner “Alice” sailed Sandwich Islands.

Fr., 27 Five sheep killed.

Sa. 28 John Bell made his marriage feast whole company notoriously drunk.

JULY.

We. 2 Doctor Helmkin [Helmcken], and Mr. T. Skinner elected for the Esquimalt district—with [out] any opposition.

Th. 3 Licence’s for selling grog granted £120 per annum.

Fr. 4 Five Sheep killed. George Greenwood and Andrew Hume, fighting.

Mo. 7 American S. S. “John Hancock” visited Esquimalt.

Tu. 8 Mr. Yates, Mr. Longford, Mr. Pemberton, Mr. Thorn, and Mr. McKay nominated for the Victoria district, three to be chosen out of the five.[89]

Fr. 11 Mr. Yates, Mr. Longford, and Mr. Pemberton elected for the Victoria district.

Sa. 12 Five Sheep killed.

Mo. 14 Mr. Yates, Mr. Longford, and Mr. Pemberton declared [elected]. Refreshing rain.

Fr. 18 Five Sheep killed. Showers.

  1. 20 Refreshing rain.

Mo. 21 Heavy showers.

We. 23 Brig “Recovery” arrived from the Sandwich Islands.

Fr. 25 Barque “Agnes Garland” arrived from England. Five Sheep killed.

Sa. 26 Another well sunk 33 feet deep.

Tu. 29 Extraordinary warm.

Th. 31 Mr. Clark’s school examination held on a royal scale[90].

AUGUST

 Fr. 1 Five sheep killed.

Sa. 2 James Wilson ¾ D.

Mo. 4 The Author whole D. Quarters Pay due.

Th. 7 Mr. Charles Clark and Miss Boatwood married.

Fr. 8 Four sheep killed. Commenced to harvest.

Mo. 11 H.MS S. “Monarch” 84 guns arrived in Esquimalt harbour.[91]

Tu. 12 H. MS S. “Trincornalee” 22 guns arrived    do.          do. The Members for the House of Assembly sworn in.

Th. 14 Cattle killed every day for the ships.[92]

Fr. 15 Four Sheep killed.

Sa. 16 Barque “Agnes Garland” sailed China.

Mo. 18 Mrs. Liddle gave birth to a female child.

Tu. 19 House of Assembly met.

We. 20 Thomas Williams shot through the arm by an Indian.[93] 

  1. 24 Attended divine service on board H.M.S. “Monarch.”

Tu. 26 Royal salute fired for Prince Albert’s birth day.

Th. 28 Robert Anderson’s child died.

Fr. 29 S. S. “Otter” taken H.M.S. “Trincomalee” in tow up to Coweigan.

Sa. 30 Sheep killed.

  1. 31 Colonial Church consecrated.[94]

SEPTEMBER.

Tu. 2 Very showery weather.

Th. 4 The Indian hung who shot Thomas Williams.

Fr. 5 Sheep killed. Showers.

Sa. 6 S. S. “Otter” & H.M.S. “Trincomalee” arrived from their Coweigan expedition.

  1. 7 Mr. Cooke gunner H. M. S. “Trincomalee” held a Prayer meeting School room.

Mo. 8 Mrs. Barr gave birth to a male child.

Tu. 9 5. 5. “Otter” sailed Nisqually.

Fr. 12 Mrs. Muir gave birth, a female child.

Sa. 13 S. S. “Otter” arrived from Nisqually with cattle.

  1. 14 Mr. Cooke held his Prayer meeting.

Tu. 16 Foggy mornings.

Sa. 20 Fresh Beef served out.

  1. 21 Mr. Green Chaplain H.M.S. “Monarch” held divine service in the School house.

Mo. 22 James Liddle’s child baptized by the Rev. Mr. Green.

Tu. 23 H.M.S. “Monarch” sailed San Francisco. James Class started to work.

We. 24 Thomas Hervey died.

Fr. 26 All the corn got in.

Sa. 27 Mrs. Muir (Isabella Weir) died.[95] Fresh Beef served out.

  1. 28 Mr. Cooke held his Prayer meeting.

Tu. 30 Mrs. Muir buried. William Newton and Miss [Emmaline] Todd married. Trincomalee Ball.

OCTOBER.

We. 1 S. S. “Otter” sailed San Francisco.

Th. 2 Matthew Rolland imprisoned for one year for stealing cattle.

Fr. 3 Very showery weather. Mrs. Whyte gave birth to a female child.

Sa. 4 Fresh Mutton served out.

  1. 5 American S.S. “Massachusetts” visited Esquimalt.

Mo. 6 H.M.S. “Trincomalee” sailed coast of Mexico.

Tu. 7 Terrible high wind.

We. 8 Showers.

Fr. 10 Two Sheep and one Pig killed.

Mo. 13 Mr. Blinkhorn died.[96]

 Tu. 14 Mrs. Veitch gave birth to a female child.

Th. 16 Mrs. Montgomery gave birth to a still-born male child. Mr. Blinkhorn buried.

Fr. 17 One Bullock killed.

  1. 19 Steam Boat “Beaver” arrived from her trading expedition.

Mo. 20 S. S. “Otter” arrived from San Francisco. Very frosty.

Th. 23 Heavey rain.

Fr. 24 Two pigs killed.

Sa. 25 9 Sheep poisned.

  1. 26 Revd E. Cridge performed divine service.

Mo. 27 Very wet day.

We. 29 Peter Bartleman and Mr. Skinner at law.

Th. 30 Showers.

Fr. 31 Three Sheep killed.

NOVEMBER.

Sa. 1 One Pig killed. Andrew Hume, James Wilson, & The Author taking money for their rations. Brig “Recovery” arrived from Sandwich Islands.

Mo. 3 Heavy rain.

Tu. 4 Quarters pay due and settled.

Th. 6 New marked [market] opened, one pig sold. One Bullock killed.

Fr. 7 Severe frost.

Sa. 8 Duncan Lidgate taking money for his rations.

Mo. 10 S. S. “Otter” sailed Nisqually.

 Th. 13 Mrs. Hume gave birth to a male child. One Bullock killed.

Fr. 14 Mrs. Pike gave birth to a still-born child.

Sa. 15 Fine weather.

Mo. 17 Steam Engine removed to the new building. Matthew Rolland liberated from prison.

We. 19 SS “Otter” arrived from Nisqually with cattle.

Th. 20 Hurricane of wind and rain.

Sa. 22 Heavy rain.

  1. 23 Revd E. Cridge performed divine service.

Tu. 25 American S. S. “Massachusetts” arrived with 80 Indian prisoners on board.

We. 26 Rain.

Th. 27 The Indian prisoners sent away north.

Sa. 29 Monthly Ration pay.

  1. 30 William Thomson and Margret Lidgate proclaimed for marriage fi.[rst] time.

DECEMBER.

Mo. 1 Frosty.

We. 3 Two Bullocks killed. Showry.

Sa. 6 Heavy rain.

Mo. 8 James Downie started to the thrashing.

Tu. 9 Dreadfull storm of wind and rain.

Fr. 12 Very frosty.

Sa. 13 Rain.

Mo. 15 Heavy fall of snow 8 inches deep.

We. 17 Hard frost.

Fr. 19 William Thomson and Margret Die married. Rain and snow.

Sa. 20 Captain Cooper’s household effects sold by public auction.[97] Very rainy.

  1. 21 Showers.

Mo. 22 Captain Cooper’s sale continued. Showers.

Tu. 23 Heavy Showers. Two horses drowned at the Esquimalt bridge.

Th. 25 Christmas kept as a holiday.

Fr. 26 Mrs. McKenzie gave birth to a male child.

Sa. 27 Monthly ration pay settled.

  1. 28 Revd B. Cridge divine service in the school-room.

Tu. 30 Heavy fall of snow.

JANUARY.

Th. 1 New Year’s day kept as a holiday.

Fr. 2 Severe frost with drift and snow.

Mo. 5 Chief Judge and Sherriff. confirmed.

Tu. 6 Hoar frost.

We. 7 S. S. “Otter” sailed Nanaimo.

Sa. 10 Severe frost lasted from the first.

Mo. 12 Captain Cooper sold out entirely.

We. 14 Theatre opened at Victoria.

Th. 15 Barque “Princess Royal” arrived from England. S. S. “Otter” sailed San Francisco.

Sa. 17 Heavy rain.

  1. 18 Rain.

Mo. 19 Rain.

Tu. 20 One Bullock killed. Rain.

We. 21 Rain.

Th. 22 Rain.

Fr. 23 Rain.

Sa. 24 Rain. Monthly Ration Pay settled.

  1. 25 Revd E. Cridge held divine service. Rain.

Mo. 26 Brig “Recovry” arrived from Sandwich Islands. Rain.

Tu. 27 Rain.

We. 28 Rain.

Th. 29 Rain.

Fr. 30 Brig “Recovry” and S. B. “Beaver” sailed Fraser’s River. Rain.

Sa. 31 Rain.

FEBRUARY.

Mo. 2 Rain.

Tu. 3 Rain and Snow.

We. 4 Quarter Pay due. Rain. One Bullock killed.

Th. 5 Rain. Fr. 6 Hard frost. Thrashing mill set agoing.

Sa. 7 Snow and rain.

  1. 8 Twenty-one sheep killed by wolves or panthers.

Tu. 10 Rain.

We. 11 Rain.

Th. 12 Rain.

Fr. 13 Sch. “Morning Star” arrived from Sock. Rain.

Sa. 14 Mr. Clark received a respectable round from Mr. McK[enz]ie. Rain.

Mo. 16 Rain. Tu. 17 Presentation of Silver Plate to Dr. Helmkin [Helmcken] on board the “Princess Royal.”[98]

We. 18 Rain.

Th. 19 Four pigs killed. Rain.

Fr. 20 Rain.

Sa. 21 Monthly ration pay due. Rain.

  1. 22 Revd B. Cridge held divine service. Rain.

Mo. 23 Frosty.

Tu. 24 S. S. “Otter” sailed Nisqually.

Th. 26 American S. S. “Massachussetts” arrived Esquimalt.

Fr. 27 Slight Frost. New Flour-mill started.

MARCH.

Tu. 3 Fine weather.

Th. 5 Barque “Princess Royal” sailed for London. S. S. “Otter” arrived Nisqually. Mrs. Souel gave birth to a female child.

Fr. 6 Three pigs killed.

Mo. 9 Showry.

We. 11 Rain.

Th. 12 Rain.

Fr. 13 Three pigs killed.

  1. 15 Very wet.

Mo. 16 Rain.

Tu. 17 Mr. W. McDonald and Miss C. Reed married. [99]

27 Heavy rain.

We. 18 SS. “Otter” sailed Nisqually. Rain.

Th. 19 Rain.

Fr. 20 One Pig killed. Rain and snow.

Sa. 21 Monthly Ration Pay settled. Rain.

  1. 22 Mrs. McKenzie, Mrs. Veitch, Mrs. Whyte, and Mrs. Hume’s children baptized by the Revd E. Cridge.

Mo. 23 S. S. “Otter” arrived.

Tu. 24 S. S. “Otter” chartered by the American Government for a cruize on the Sound.

We. 25 Showery.

Fr. 27 Four Pigs killed.

Tu. 31 S. S. “Otter” arrived.

APRIL.

Fr. 3 Two Pigs killed.

Mo. 6 5. S. “Otter” sailed Nisqually.

Th. 9 S. S. Otter arrived. Nisqually.

Fr. 10 Good Friday kept. One Bullock killed.

Tu. 14 Mrs. Deans gave birth to a male child.

Fr. 17 One Bullock killed.

Sa. 18 Monthly Ration Pay settled.

Mo. 20 Mr. McKenzie gained a law-plea over Mr. Clark.

We. 22 Mark Cole put a pistol bullet through a Canadian’s leg.

Fr. 24 One Bullock killed.

Sa. 25 S. S. “Otter” arrived.

Tu. 28 Very warm weather.

We. 29 Mrs. Kelly gave birth to a male child.

MAY.

Mo. 4 Quarter’s Pay due and settled.

Tu. 5 S. S. “Otter” sailed Nisqually.

Th. 7 S. S. “Otter” arrived with Mr. Dallas and Mr. Munroe.

Fr. 8 Three Sheep killed.

Sa. 9 S. S. “Otter” sailed Nanaimo, Mr. Douglas, Mr. Dallas, Mr. Pemberton, & Mr. Cridge.

Mo. 11 Hot and sultry.

We. 13 Refreshing showers. S. S. “Otter” arrived from Nanaimo.

Fr. 15 Three Sheep killed.

Sa. 16 Showers. Monthly ration pay settled.

Mo. 18 S. S. “Otter” sailed Nisqually.

Tu. 19 Brig “Recovery” arrived Sandwich Islands.

We. 20 5. 5. “Otter” arrived Nisqually.

Th. 21 Heavy rain.

Fr. 22 Four Sheep killed.

  1. 24 Revd B. Cridge held divine service.

Mo. 25 Victoria races celebrated on Beacon Hill.

We. 27 Very hot and sultry.

Fr. 29 Three Sheep killed.

Sa. 30 Great concert held in the Assembly rooms Victoria.

  1. 31 Heat 110 degrees.

JUNE.

We. 3 Cool brezzes.

Fr. 5 Four Sheep killed.

Mo. 8 S. S. “Otter” sailed Columbia River.

Fr. 12 Three Sheep killed.

Sa. 13 H.M.S.S. “Satellite” 20 guns arrived in Esquimalt. Monthly Ration pay due.

We. 17 John Hunter started to work.

Fr. 19 Four Sheep killed.

Sa. 20 5. S. “Otter” arrived from Columbia River.

Mo. 22 American Steamer “Active” arrived at Victoria.

Tu. 23 The skeleton of James Newbird found.[100]

Th. 25 Mrs. Cridge gave birth to a male child.

Fr. 26 Five sheep killed.

  1. 28 Confirmation of young communicants by the Bishop of Oregon.[101]

29 Mo. 29 Refreshing rain.

Tu. 30 Rain.

JULY.

 We. 1 H.M.S.S. “Sattelite” and American Steamer “Active” sailed Olympia.

Fr. 3 Five Sheep killed.

Sa. 4 S. S. “Otter” arrived from Nisqually with cattle.

Mo. 6 S. S. “Otter” sailed Fraser’s River. Mrs. Downie gave birth to a male child.

Tu. 7 H.M.S. “Sattelite” arrived from Olympia.

Fr. 10 Four Sheep killed.

Sa. 11 S. S “Otter” arrived. Monthly Ration pay.

  1. 12 Revd E. Cridge performed divine service.

We. 5 Lecture by the Indian killed. Missionary.[102]

Sa. 18 Four Sheep killed

  1. 19 Mrs. Yates gave birth to a male child. Mrs. Yates’s daughter Agnes died.

Mo. 20 Mrs. Greenwood gave birth to a female child.

We. 22 Lecture by the Indian Missionary.

Fr. 24 Four Sheep killed.

  1. 26 Divine service held by the Indian Missionary.

Tu.. 28 S. S. “Otter” sailed San Francisco. Fr. 31 Four Sheep killed.

[The End.]

[1] Douglas to Barclay, April 8, 1853.

[2] Ibid, November 4, 1853.

[3] ) Granton, a port on the Firth of Forth, a few miles north of Edinburgh.

[4] The correct spelling is Norman Morison.

[5] Most of the persons mentioned throughout the diary were fellow passengers in the Norman Morison. For a complete list of the passengers see A. N. Mouat, “Notes on the Norman Morison,” British Columbia Historical Quarterly, III. (1939), pp. 213—14.

[6] Meaning, presumably, a Buffon’s skua. The species found on the coast of Chile is known as Stercorarius chilensis.

[7] The Norman Morison has now rounded Cape Horn, and is sailing northward on a course roughly parallel to the coast of South America.

[8] The child was christened Eliza Norman Morison Wishart Anderson. She died in Victoria in 1936, a few days before her 76th birthday.

[9] ) Kenneth McKenzie had been engaged as a Bailiff on behalf of the Puget Sound Agricultural Company, to take charge of one of their farms in the neighbourhood of Victoria. Upon his arrival he was assigned to the tract of land which soon became famous as the Craigflower Farm. James Stewart and Robert Weir had been engaged as Land Stewards by McKenzie.

[10] That is, Craigflower, to which Melrose was also assigned.

[11] At this time travel between Victoria and Craigflower was by water, up and down Victoria Arm.

[12] The Rev. Robert J. Staines, Chaplain to the Hudson’s Bay Company, had been at Victoria since March, 1849.

[13] ) I.e., in the reversible falls now known as the Gorge.

[14] The Vancouver was owned by the Hudson’s Bay Company. She was the first vessel to make the voyage from England direct to Victoria, where she arrived in 1845. She was later wrecked, as noted in the diary.

[15] Owned by the Hudson’s Bay Company. The farms at Nisqually were one of the chief sources of supplies for Victoria at this time.

[16] Mining operations were being carried on at both Fort Rupert and Nanaimo in 1853; this reference is probably to Fort Rupert.

[17] ) The William, as she is usually called, loaded 121 tons of coal at Nanaimo in March, 1853.

[18] Owned by the Hudson’s Bay Company.

[19] Fort Rupert is meant.

[20] Actually Lieutenant-Governor. Gold had been discovered in the Queen Charlotte Islands in 1850—51, a small rush followed in 1852, and it was deemed advisable to give Douglas formal authority in the area.

[21] Presumably this and the other buildings the completion of which is noted in the diary were in the Craigflower Farm neighbourhood.

[22] This little 60’-foot schooner was the first pilot boat on the famous Columbia River bar, in 1849. She had just been replaced there, and was starting a new career as a general trader.

[23] Also referred to as the Honolulu Packet; a 92-ton British schooner.

[24] The case of John Bell illustrates the punishment meted out to recalcitrant employees of the Puget Sound Agricultural Company. See the entries dated April 28, May 27, June 7, and June 20, 1853.

[25] The famous little vessel, owned by the Hudson’s Bay Company, which had been on the Pacific Coast since 1827.

[26] The Rose, a German vessel of 200 tons, was loading piles, which were in great demand in San Francisco.

[27] This licence fee had been imposed in March. See introduction.

[28] Presumably this refers to a forcible attempt to bring Weir back to Craigflower, from which he had absconded (see entry dated June 27, supra).

[29] The Otter, owned by the Hudson’s Bay Company, was only less well-known than the famous Beaver. She was a craft of 144 tons, with a length of 122 feet.

[30] ) Douglas accompanied this expedition, in order to inspect the new coal-mines at Nanaimo. It is possibly significant that the desertions noted on August 21 took place during his absence.

[31] A United States revenue cutter and surveying vessel. She was the first vessel to use Active Pass, which is named after her.

[32] The Vancouver had been wrecked shortly before this on Rose Spit, Queen Charlotte Islands.

[33] Serious trouble with the Indians was being experienced by the American settlements at this time.

[34] The first child of Dr. J. S. Helmcken and his wife, Cecilia, daughter of James Douglas. The baby lived only three months. See entry dated January 22, 1854.

[35] That is, he accepted a money allowance in place of rations sup plied by the Company.

[36] Not identified

[37] Bellevue Island, i.e., San Juan Island. The first serious American claim to the island was made in the fall of 1853, and the matter is dealt with at length in Douglas’s letters of the time.

[38] This 530-ton British vessel sailed from Sooke with a cargo of salmon and lumber for San Francisco, but was wrecked on the coast of Vancouver Island. She is sometimes referred to (as in Lewis & Dryden, Marine History of the Pacific Northwest) as the Lord Weston.

[39] [Footnote in original.) New Year’s Day, a day above all days, for rioting in drunkenness, then what are we to expect of this young, but desperate Colony of ours; where dissipation is carried on to such extremities my readers will be expecting to find nothing in my Aln’ianack, from Christmas, till past the New Year, but such a one drunk, and another drunk, and so on; how different is the scene, then what must I attribute the cause of all this, too, must I prescribe it to the good morals of the people; no! no! my friends, no such thing could be expected here; the grog-shops were drained of every sort of liquour, not a drop to be got for either love or money, had it been otherwise the case, there is no saying whither my small Almanack would have contained them or not; it would almost take a line of packet ships, running regular between here, and San Francisco to supply this Island with grog, so great a thirst prevails amongst its inhabitants.

[40] A petition to the Queen, which in effect asked for the removal of David Cameron, brother-in-law of Governor Douglas, who had recently been appointed Judge of the new Supreme Court of Vancouver ‘Island. See Scholefield and Howay, British Columbia, I., pp. 547—51; also “Correspondence with the Government of Vancouver Island, relative to the Appointment of Chief Justice Cameron,” in Papers Relating to Vancouver Island, London, 1863, pp. 37—52.

[41] ) This brig of 157 tons was engaged in the coal and lumber trades to San Francisco.

[42] ) The infant son of Dr. J. S. Helmcken, born October 29, 1853.

[43] On Governor Stevens’s visit see Hazard Stevens, The Life of Isaac Ingalls Stevens, Boston and New York, 1900, I., pp. 416—18.

[44] This small American sloop plied regularly between Olympia, Bellingham Bay, and Victoria, carrying the mails.

[45] Emanuel Douilet, who was fined and imprisoned for making off with a number of pigs belonging to the Rev. Robert Staines. See James Douglas to Archibald Barclay, November 3, 1854.

[46] Staines, although chaplain and schoolmaster for the Hudson’s Bay Company, joined the anti-company faction in the Colony, and agreed to return to England and present their grievances to the British Government. The vessel upon which he sailed foundered, and Staines was drowned. See entries for February 7 and July 8, 1854.

[47] That is, to one of the other farms of the Puget Sound Agricultural Company, of which Skinner was bailiff.

[48] Meaning, in 1854, from Fort Langley.

[49] The meaning of this entry is not clear. It would seem to refer to the appointment of magistrates, but no such appointments were made by Governor Douglas at this time. Kenneth McKenzie, Thomas Skinner, E. E. Langford, and Thomas Blinkhorn had all been appointed in March, 1853; John Muir, of Sooke, was not appointed until September, 1854

[50] Construction of the road to Sooke commenced at this time.

[51] The original Craigflower school. The building is still standing and is now a museum.

[52] John Powell Mills, master of the barque Colinda. The story behind this case is a complicated one. The Colinda, under charter to the Hudson’s Bay Company, sailed from London with a cargo of supplies and 212 passengers, and Mills was instructed to proceed direct to Vancouver Island. Instead of doing so he put into Valdivia, in consequence, as he asserted, of a mutiny of the passengers. At Valparaiso the passengers were brought to trial before Admiral Moresby, Commander in Chief, Pacific Station, for “mutinous and piratical conduct,” but were acquitted of the charge. While in Valparaiso, Captain Mills sold a large portion of the Colinda’s cargo, despite the fact that it was the property of the Hudson’s Bay Company. As a result of Mills’ conduct, all but seventeen of the passengers refused further passage in the ship, Hudson’s Bay Company applied for redress to the Vice-Admiralty Court of Vancouver Island, and obtained an injunction against the ship, which was in due course made over to the Company’s representative for adjustment of the claims. Governor Douglas subsequently received a Power of Attorney from James Tomlin, of London, owner of the Colinda, placed a new captain in charge, supplied him with capital, and secured a charter for the ship. She sailed from Victoria on March 16, 1855, for San Francisco, en. route to London

[53] A supply ship for the Hudson’s Bay Company.

[54] This 97-foot vessel, built in Philadelphia in 1847, was the first regular mail-steamer on Puget Sound. She was wrecked a few months later; see entry for February 10, 1855.

[55] The Craigflower school is meant.

[56] The Crimean War was in progress at this time. The attack on Petropavlovsk took place in September, 1854. On this action, and the movements of naval craft noted in subsequent entries, see “Correspondence relating to the establishment of a naval base at Esquimalt,” in this Quarterly, VI. (1942), pp. 277—96.

[57] Melrose himself gives this note elsewhere in his diary: “When leaving the port, and a short distance outside, the steamer ‘Virago’ captured a Russian schooner, and after taking every thing out of her, set her on fire, shortly after a Russian merchantman, the ‘Sitka’ of 800 tons 10 guns, with a crew of 35 men, and 20 passengers, was taken by the ‘President’ her cargo chiefly gunpowder, is valued at 40,000£ , sterling.”

[58] Many of those on board are remembered as pioneer citizens of Nanaimo. See Barrie H. E. Goult, “First and Last Days of the Princess Royal,” in this Quarterly, III. (1939), pp. 15—24.

[59] Charles Clarke, who arrived in the Princess Royal to be master of the new school at Craigflower.

[60] “The epithet of the Daft (mad) Days, applied to the season of the New Year in Scotland, indicates very expressively the uproarious joviality which characterized the period in question.” (Chambers, Book of Days.)

[61] A supply ship of the Hudson’s Bay Company.

[62] Presumably the son of the late Chief Trader Charles Ross, in charge of Fort Victoria, 1843—44.

[63] The Craigflower school.

[64] Again, the reference is to the Craigflower school.

[65] The meaning of this entry is not clear.

[66] Sooke is spelled Soock by Melrose throughout the diary. The engine and boiler had been purchased by John Muir, who installed them in his sawmill on Sooke Basin.

[67] The Rev. Edward (later Bishop) Cridge, who succeeded Staines as chaplain for the Hudson’s Bay Company.

[68] This 49-foot sidewheel steamer was intended to replace the wrecked Major Tompkins on the Puget Sound mail run but proved too small and frail. She was built in San Francisco and brought north on the deck of a ship.

[69] For this census see BC Historical Quarterly, IV. (1940), pp. 51—58.

[70] A naval hospital, consisting of three buildings, was erected at Esquimalt in 1855. See “Correspondence relating to the establishment of a naval base at Esquimalt,” in BC Historical Quarterly, VI. (1942), pp. 277—96.

[71] Langford is meant.

[72] This little iron schooner of 45 tons, owned by Captain James Cooper, was the first vessel registered at Victoria. she was brought out from England in sections.

[73] Rev. Edward (later Bishop) Cridge, chaplain for the Hudson’s Bay Company. See entry for April 1, 1855

[74] The war between the. Americans and the Indians in Washington Territory and parts of Oregon, which had broken out in 1855. The situation continued tense for several months. See Douglas to Tolmie, April 21, 1856: “I am sorry to have very bad accounts of the war, the Indians appear to have the upper hand and really exhibit a degree of courage and sagacity which make us tremble for the empire of the whites.”

[75]  Captain David D. Wishart, of the Hudson’s Bay barque Princess Royal

[76] Kenneth McKenzie, bailiff in charge of Craigflower Farm.

[77] Charles Clarke, schoolmaster at Craigflower

[78] The corps formed at this time was known as the Victoria Colonial Voltigeurs. The total number of men enlisted is not known, but eighteen members took part in the expedition to Cowichan later in the year. See entry for August 20, 1856,

[79] This barque-rigged vessel originally belonged to the United States Navy but had been handed over to the War Department. She was one of several vessels sent to Puget Sound because of the Indian troubles.

[80] Hamilton Moffatt, of Fort Rupert, and Lucy MeNeill, daughter of Captain W. H. MeNeill.

[81] The meaning of this curious entry is obscure. Possibly the reference is to “ragtag and bob-tail,” meaning thereby the riff-raff of the Craigflower community

[82] The Decatur (as the name should be spelled) took a prominent part in the war against the Indians. She was at Seattle and helped to defend the settlement when it was attacked in February, 1856.

[83] The reference is to John Tod, one of the best-known officers of the Hudson’s Bay Company. No particulars of the charges made are available, and no reference to the case has been found in the records of the Courts

[84] This dwelling, now known as the Old Craigflower Farmhouse, is still standing and in good repair. It was sold to private owners by the Hudson’s Bay Company only a few years ago.

[85] Promising placer deposits in the vicinity of Sooke were causing some excitement at this time. See Douglas to Tolmie, May 1, 1856.

[86] The Court records relating to this case are incomplete and give no additional details. See entries for May 24, May 31, and June 5, infra.

[87] On this date the Council of Vancouver Island and Governor Douglas fixed the qualifications for candidates and voters and defined the districts in which members of the new House of Assembly would be elected.

[88] The man’s body was found a year later. See entry for June 23, 1857.

[89] Four of the candidates were: James Yates, E. E. Langford (not Longford), J. D. Pemberton, and J. W. McKay. Thorn has not been identified; but see entry for February 26, 1856, supra, which may refer to the person in question.

[90] The Craigflower School was inspected both by Governor Douglas and by the Rev. Edward Cridge. The latter submitted a written report for which see D. L. MacLaurin, “Education Before the Gold Rush,” British Columbia Historical Quarterly, II. (1938), pp. 258—60.

[91] Flagship of Rear Admiral H. W. Bruce, Commander-in-Chief, Pacific Station.

[92] Meaning for the ships of the Royal Navy

[93] ) “Thomas Williams an English subject and settler in this Colony having been wantonly fired at and dangerously wounded by an Indian of the Somina Tribe who inhabit the upper Cowegin valley,” Douglas requested Admiral Bruce to send a force to apprehend the would-be murderer. Douglas to Bruce, August 25, 1856. An expedition was at once organized and left in the Hudson’s Bay Steamer Otter and H.M.S. Trincomalee. See entries for August 29, September 4, and September 6. Some 400 sailors and marines took part; eighteen members of the Victoria Voitigeurs accompanied them. The murderer was apprehended, tried, and executed.

[94] The Victoria District Church, the predecessor of Christ Church Cathedral. The original building was destroyed by fire in 1869.

[95] Mrs. Andrew Muir. For her marriage see entries for January 15 and January 31, 1854, supra.

[96] Thomas Blinkhorn, who had come to Vancouver Island as an “independent settler” in 1851, and had taken charge of a farm at Metchosin owned by Captain James Cooper. Blinkhorn was appointed magistrate for Metchosin District in 1853 and held the office at the time of his death.

[97] Following the death of Thomas Blinkhorn (see entry for October 13, 1856) Cooper sold his farm at Metchosin, and later sold his household effects, as recorded in this and subsequent entries. He returned to England in 1857, where he gave evidence before the Select Committee investigating the affairs of the Hudson’s Bay Company. He was appointed Harbour Master for British Columbia in 1859.

[98] No mention of this presentation is found in Helmcken’s reminiscences, and its significance is not known.

[99] William John McDonald, a well-known Victoria pioneer (who was afterwards Senator), and Catherine Balfour Reid, daughter of Captain J. M. Reid.

[100] The man had disappeared a year before. See entry for June 17, 1856, supra.

[101] The Rev. Thomas Fielding Scott, elected missionary bishop of Oregon and Washington for the Protestant Episcopal Church in October, 1853.

[102] William Duncan, of Metlakatla fame, who came to the Pacific Coast in the service of the Church Missionary Society. He travelled in H.M.S. Satellite, and arrived at Esquimalt on June 13, 1857; see entry for that. date.